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An Electronic Journal Impact Study: The Factors that Change when an Academic Library Migrates from Print Carol Hansen Montgomery, Ph.D. Dean of Libraries, Drexel University June 3, 2002 Funded in part by a grant from the IMLS, NR-00027 Introduction Institutional Environment

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An Electronic Journal Impact Study: The Factors that Change when an Academic Library Migrates from Print

Carol Hansen Montgomery, Ph.D.

Dean of Libraries, Drexel University

June 3, 2002

Funded in part by a grant from the IMLS, NR-00027

introduction
Introduction
  • Institutional Environment
  • Developing E-Journal Collection
  • Operational Impact

IMLS-funded Research

  • Impact on Users
  • Lessons Learned
  • Next Steps
drexel university
Drexel University
  • Technologically Oriented
  • Urban
  • Undergraduates: 10,000
  • Graduate Students: 2,500
  • Faculty: 500
  • Research Intensive
w w hagerty library
W.W. Hagerty Library
  • Centralized
  • 100K square feet
  • 400K volumes
  • 40 FTE staff
  • $4M budget for 2001/02
  • Fully wired & wireless network
  • 100 public access desktop computers
  • 50 circulating laptops
e journal collection
E-Journal Collection

Goal in 1998:

Migrate to an all electronic journal collection as quickly as possible

institutional readiness
Institutional Readiness
  • Administrative support
  • Computer literate users
  • Infrastructure in place
  • Poor current journal collection
  • Major budget increase
  • Distance education programs
  • Resource-rich environment
developing the e j collection
Developing the E-J Collection
  • Much more complex
  • Many more variables than print
  • Purchased in package “Deals”
  • Price/Contract negotiation

------------------------------------------------

  • Database to manage selection
  • Large transition period complete
additional variables
Additional Variables
  • Comparability
  • Subscription or full-text
  • Competitive sources
  • Pricing plans
  • Access restrictions
  • Provision of statistics
  • Linking capabilities

------------------------------------------------

  • Archiving policy
  • Lending via ILL
print collection 2002
Print Collection 2002
  • “Browsing” Journals
  • Fashion and Design Journals
  • Core Library Science Journals
  • Other Journals not yet Available Electronically
imls project goals
IMLS Project Goals

Case Study

  • Impact on staff activities
  • Impact on costs:

reduced, increased, re-allocated?

Stimulate Research

  • Develop a methodology
methods
Methods*
  • Calculate capital costs, amortize

Space for print

Computing infrastructure for electronic

  • Calculate operational costs

Staff costs

Other operational costs

e.g. subscriptions, binding

  • Calculate subscription costs
  • Compute/organize use data

*Using King model.

impact on staff costs measured by department
Impact on Staff & Costs: Measured by Department
  • Administration
  • Technical Services
  • Infrastructure/Systems & Space
  • Circulation/Access
  • Information Services

-------------------------------------------------

  • Document Delivery
analyzed by function
Analyzed by Function
  • Re-organized staff data to:

Acquisitions

Collection development

Physical processing

Record-keeping

Reference

Teaching

Communications

Public relations

research question
Research Question
  • Hypothesis:

Electronic journals are less expensive

than print journals.

definitions what is an electronic journal
DEFINITIONSWhat is an Electronic Journal?
  • E-Journal [pure]: Individual subs or publisher packages
  • Aggregator: Individual journals from different publishers
  • Full text database: Search tool with selected full-text
definitions what is a print journal serial
DEFINITIONSWhat is a Print Journal [Serial]?
  • Continuations/Annuals?
  • Newsletters?
  • Newspapers?
definitions what costs matter
DEFINITIONSWhat costs matter?
  • What is the unit of measure? Cost per:

Journal title?

Journal volume?

Journal issue?

Journal article?

Journal “pages”? “words”?

Article use?

definitions what is a use
DEFINITIONSWhat is a Use?
  • Print

Re-shelving an issue or volume?

  • Electronic

Opening html file?

Downloading a PDF document?

Click on E-J database link

More than X time spent viewing?

What about duplicate views/session?

impact per title costs vary 2002
Impact: Per Title Costs Vary [2002]
  • Print “only” 370 $112/title
  • E-subscriptions 2,542 $137/title
  • Aggregator 347 $ 83/title
  • Full-text database* 11,200 $ 5/title

*Allocated half the cost of the database

to the electronic journals. Non-unique.

use data
Use Data
  • Print (98/99) Bound & Current Use
    • All 1,710 titles 45,000
  • Print (00/01)
    • All 300+ titles 34,000
  • E-Journals (00/01) Measurable Use
    • Individual sub. 2,542 titles 100,881
    • Aggregator 347 titles 23,058
    • Full-text dbase 11,200 titles* 269,555

*Not unique.

cost per use 00 01
Cost per Use (00/01)
  • Print Journals $1
  • Individual subscriptions $3
  • Aggregator $1
  • Full-text database* $0.21

* Allocated half the cost of the database.

cost use range
Cost/Use Range
  • Print $1 to $50
  • Individual subscriptions $2 to $18
  • Aggregator $0.42 to $ 5
  • Full-text database $0.11 to $ 1
impact e journal operational costs offset print savings
Impact: E-Journal Operational Costs Offset Print Savings
  • Higher level staff required
  • Selection/acquisitions costs high
  • Statistics collection not automatic
  • Onerous “claiming” procedure
  • Inventory control made difficult by E-Journal “volatility”
  • Demanding of administrator time
impact development costs high e j management database
Impact: Development Costs High E-J Management Database
  • MSQL database
  • PEARL to create html
  • Features:

Creates web pages

Search for print or E-J title

Allow updating by non-techie

impact users prefer e journals
Impact: Users Prefer E-Journals
  • 84% prefer E-Journals to print
  • Increasing use of E-Journals
  • Need for training/awareness
impact users satisfied 1 no agreement 10 strong agreement
Impact: Users Satisfied[1=no agreement; 10=strong agreement]

Mean

  • E-Journals save time 7.7
  • E-Journals make work easier 8.6
  • E-Journals result in better

quality research 8.1

  • E-Js enable me to find more 8.5
lessons learned
Lessons Learned
  • Don’t depend on full-text databases for core journals
  • Keep a larger browsing collection
  • Assume a limited paper archiving responsibility if justified
  • Re-develop all related policies, e.g. binding
next steps
Next Steps
  • Complete analysis
  • Compare to previous studies of print journal economics
  • Measure cost to users of electronic vs print journals