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Administrative Reform. Blue team. “Administrative reform means an induced, permanent improvement in administration” ( Wallis 1989, 170 ). Part I: Golden Oldies . Miewald : Life and Hard Times of Bureaucracies.

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administrative reform

Administrative Reform

Blue team

“Administrative reform means an induced, permanent improvement in administration” (Wallis 1989, 170)

miewald life and hard times of bureaucracies
Miewald: Life and Hard Times of Bureaucracies
  • Organizations aren’t instrumental – i.e., they ‘are not supposed to accomplish anything beyond their own existence’ (100)
  • Problem with way organizational theory sees organizations (rational)
  • In reality, can look at them as technical, human relations and political problems
    • Technical
    • Personal: ‘can bend an organization out of shape’ (105)
    • Political: most important; key is budgeting (‘clash of values and the making of allocative decisions’ [107])
  • Stages of the bureau
    • Birth, growth (survival), maturity (little search); death
miewald responsibility
Miewald: Responsibility
  • Difficult to get a grasp of. What is it?
    • Responsiveness, flexibility, consistency, stability, leadership, probity, candor, competence, efficacy, prudence, due process, accountability (237)
  • ‘Sins’ of bureaucracies
    • Arrogance, political involvement, corruption, unethical behavior, inefficiency, failure to respect legislative intent, ignoring procedures, information manipulation, abuse of subordinates, failure to show initiative
  • Concrete ways to prevent/remedy irresponsibility
    • Administrative law (discretion vsRechtsstaat); ombudsman (the public’s ‘agent’); individual responsibility (human values and self-regulation of bureaucrats; encouragement of whistle blowers)
marini the minnowbrook perspective
Marini: The Minnowbrook Perspective
  • In light of ‘new public administration’
  • Make PA relevant to societal problems of the day
  • Moving away from value-free (positivist) research approaches
  • Focus on what schools/education of PA should look like
    • More comparative, empirical, focused on social equity
    • Teach PA as the applied social science
    • PA as ‘educational’ versus merely ‘training’
    • Curriculum: ‘up to date, alive, problem oriented, and relevant’ (361)
policy implementation and local institutions in botswana picard and morgan 1985
Policy, Implementation and Local Institutions in Botswana (Picard and Morgan 1985)
  • Focus of this chapter
    • the relationship between rural development goals and central-local institutional arrangements
  • “Governments has many good ideas but we don’t know too much about them out here” (125)
    • In an interview with one administrative secretary to the district Land Board in Botswana
  • Challenges of local officials
    • Implementation decisions taken far away in the national capital
    • Little knowledge of the reasoning behind the policy
    • Few resources, financial and administrative to carry out the policy
  • Agenda and the reality: Tribal Grazing Land Policy (1975)
    • Original policy: generating responsibility for the control of land use/writing a land use plan for the district/supervising the division of district land/protecting the interests of the poorer people
    • Reality and implementation: the land boards understaffed/ill-equipped/ without adequate office space
policy implementation and local institutions in botswana continued
Policy, Implementation and Local Institutions in Botswana (continued)
  • Why?
    • Dynamics of policy implementation
    • Multi-dimensional policies and institutions
    • Interplay between policy and institutions/reciprocal effects
  • Framework for analysis
    • The degree of asymmetry between the public policy goals and the organizational capacity of local institutions
    • Policy implementation as the main consideration within the “policy context”
  • Local government: Devolution and retreat
    • The evolution of district councils, 1966-1970
    • Faith in the center, 1970-1976
    • Stalled attempts at local government perform, 1977-present
  • Organizational capacity at the local level
    • Central government, unwilling to increase the capacity of local government
    • The affective dimension of local government
the mouse that roared taiwan s management of trade relations with the united states chan 1987
The Mouse that Roared: Taiwan’s Management of Trade Relations with the United States (Chan 1987)
  • Main focus:
    • How dependent country like Taiwan has faced conditions of basic asymmetry in international relations?
    • How we can understand the trade relationship and predict the future?
    • How small and dependent economies have tried to lessen or evade the full impact of U.S. protectionist pressures?
the mouse that roared taiwan s management of trade relations with the united states continued
The Mouse that Roared: Taiwan’s Management of Trade Relations with the United States (Continued)
  • Micro level of bargaining tactics
    • Problem redefinition, damage limitation, exploring loopholes, linkage politics and transnational coalitions
  • Macro level factors
    • Taiwan’s policy capacity and U.S. accommodating behavior
    • Taiwan’s institutional capabilities especially in terms of the autonomy and strength of the state; its historical niche in U.S. domestic policies and Washington’s cold war containment policy
    • Metagame: Taiwan’s coping behavior in the trade can be understood in the broader context of a “metagame” that seeks to preserve the vital political and security contributions from the U.S.
  • The meaning of public sector reform
  • Literary maps - how we have conceptualized the field
  • How bureaucracy provides services
    • Privatization
  • Role of personnel
    • Human resource management
    • Accountability
  • Implementation
    • Governance
    • Accountability
    • Corruption
  • Development
the meaning of public sector reform
The meaning of public sector reform
  • “Induced, permanent improvement in administration” (Wallis 1989, 170)
  • Administrative reform strategies (Turner and Humle 1997)
    • Restructuring
    • Participation
    • Human resources issuesAccountability Public – private mixes
  • Challenges
    • Management (finance/human resource/leadership)
    • Measuring performance
    • Accountability/responsibility for implementation
    • Governance



Human Resource Management



Picard and Garrity/


Fuller/ Savas

Marini (Minnowbrook Perspective)

Arnold and Morgan



Picard and Morgan


Turner and Hulme





how bureaucracy provides services
How bureaucracy provides services
  • Privatization
    • Savas: “the key to better government”
      • Alarmed by growth in government
      • Lays out a spectrum of privatization options from contracting out, to franchising, to government vending
  • Arnold and Morgan: projects, plans, and programs
    • Need organizational framework for managers
      • Distinguish between project and program management
        • Project: clear objectives; defined roles and responsibilities; plans and schedules; rewards/sanctions; feedback/adaptation mechanisms
        • Program: design, implementor capacity; expanding resources/support; collaboration with other organizations; proactive leadership
    • Result: towards better effectiveness in implementation of public policy goals
role of personnel
Role of personnel
  • Human resource management
    • A key way to reform, over time
    • Education rather than technical training (Minnowbrook)
  • Accountability
    • Barzelay: need to move to “post-bureaucratic” structure where officials, civil servants “build” rather than “enforce” accountability
      • Often seen in terms of accountability to overseers, line agencies and staff
      • Should move from “guardianship to problem solving” (99)
      • Need “new routines” and a new culture
        • “way things should and could be”
        • Problem-solving
        • “customers and public policy”
        • “producing value”
        • “caring about people”
  • Governance
    • World Bank Policy and NGOs: World bank has expanded collaboration with private agencies and grassroots groups in projects (Nelson 1995).
    • NGOs tendencies to process-oriented programming contradicts the interests of World Bank (Nelson 1995).
    • Beyond the market, beyond the state (Turner and Hulme 1997, 200)
      • the rise of non-governmental organizations
    • Governance and creating civil society (Garrity 1996)
    • Institutional development/changing organizational behavior and management practices (Garrity 1996)
implementation continued
Implementation (Continued)
  • Corruption (Klitgaard 1991)
    • Hong Kong’s Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC): analyzing the ICAC’s success: several principal-agent client relationships
    • Singapore: Cleaning up corruption
      • Changing rewards and penalties
      • Gathering information
      • Restructuring the principal-agent-client relationship
    • Case of Korea: collusion in bidding/attempts to make competition work
administrative reform and development
Administrative reform and development
  • Bureaucracy and development (Turner and Hulme 1997)
    • Leading issues relating to bureaucracy and development
      • Size
      • Capacity: project implementation and capacity
      • Culture: bureaucracies of developing countries are heavily influenced by endogenous cultures.
      • Power, politics, and authority: power distribution in society/in government
      • Bureaucratic bias
      • Gender and bureaucracy
      • Corruption
administrative reform and development continued
Administrative reform and development(Continued)
  • Reform cases (Wallis 1989)
    • China – public health program/Kenya - tea development authority/Korea - government invested enterprises
  • NGOs, empowerment and politics (Turner and Hulme 1997)
    • Empowerment as a grand object
    • NGOs claim to be redistributing power at the local level and influencing policy
    • People-centered development
  • Marini, Frank. 1971. Toward a new public administration: the Minnowbrook perspective. Scranton, PA: Chandler Pub. Co.
  • Chan, S. 1987. "The mouse that roared: Taiwan's management of trade relations with the US." Comparative Political Studies 20 (3):251-92.
  • Picard, Louis A., and Philip E. Morgan. 1985. "Policy, implementation and local institutions in Botswana." In The evolution of modern Botswana, ed. L. A. Picard. London: Rex Collings.
  • Miewald, Robert D. 1978. Public administration: a critical perspective. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Baker, Randall. 1994. Comparative public management: putting U.S. public policy and implementation in context. Westport, CN: Praeger.
  • Barzelay, Michael, and Babak J. Armajani. 1992. Breaking through bureaucracy: a new vision for managing in government. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Picard, Louis A., Michele Garrity, and International Institute of Administrative Sciences. 1994. Policy reform for sustainable development in Africa: the institutional imperative. Boulder, CO: L. Rienner Publishers.
  • Savas, Emanuel S. 1987. Privatization: the key to better government. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.
  • Klitgaard, Robert E. 1988. Controlling corruption. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Wallis, Malcolm. 1989. Bureaucracy: its role in Third World development. London: Macmillan.
  • Nelson, Paul J. 1995. The World Bank and non-governmental organizations: the limits of apolitical development. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • White, Louise G. 1990. Implementing policy reforms in LDCs: a strategy for designing and effecting change. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Turner, Mark, and David Hulme. 1997. Governance, administration, and development: making the state work. West Hartford, CN: Kumarian Press.