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Failure Case Study of Construction at a Solid Waste Site. K. Madhavan, Ph.D., P.E., Dept. of Civil & Env. Engineering Christian Brothers University Memphis, TN, 38104. Geotechnical Courses. Required Courses - CE 322 Geotechnical Engineering - CE 322L Geotech Lab

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failure case study of construction at a solid waste site

Failure Case Study of Construction at a Solid Waste Site

K. Madhavan, Ph.D., P.E.,

Dept. of Civil & Env. Engineering

Christian Brothers University

Memphis, TN, 38104

geotechnical courses
Geotechnical Courses

Required Courses

- CE 322 Geotechnical Engineering

- CE 322L Geotech Lab

- CE 340 Design of Foundations

Elective Course

- CE 418 Advanced Design of Foundations

motivation
Motivation
  • Technical Issues – Brings together all principles & applications including from other required/elective courses
  • Opportunities to discuss professional and ethical issues
  • Perhaps students understand materials better (connecting concepts with applications)
project data
Project Data
  • Site was an old sand & gravel dredging area around 1900’s
  • A clay cap was in place
  • 23 acre site
  • Four buildings (one & two storey-140,000 sq. ft.) – on pile foundations
  • Buildings were on monotube piles
construction at a landfill site
Construction at a Landfill Site
  • Geotechnical investigations and report were done in 1977-78

- Not to build at the site and find another site

- The client chose to build at the site (1979)

- The cost of construction about $6M

- After several years of use, buildings

were not usable and were vacated

- A remedial work was done for about $10M

- Litigation between parties and was

settled out of court

construction details
Construction Details
  • A gas collection system was installed in a sand layer above the waste
  • Numerous obstructions were encountered while driving the piles
  • Utilities were grade supported
  • Monotube piles were filled with concrete
structural details
Structural Details
  • All buildings had structural floor slabs
  • Floor beams supported by piles and one-way slabs
  • Superstructures were of steel frames with exterior metal sheathing
performance of buildings pavement and other construction
Performance of Buildings, Pavement, and other construction
  • Cracks on floors and walls, floor sloped
  • Methane gas inflow in buildings
  • Buildings – Differential settlements up to 18 inches
  • Parking area settled as much as 3 ft
  • Buried utilities were affected
  • Large amount of asphalt added to pavement
geotechnical investigations
Geotechnical Investigations
  • About 100 boreholes
  • Soil Layers:
    • Clay cap
    • Landfill material 30 to 60 ft (materials including car bodies, concrete slabs, etc)
    • Beneath landfill loose sand layer (left from previous dredging operations)
    • Bottom strata (100 ft below)– dense sand – suitable to receive pile foundations
remediation
Remediation
  • Use of minipiles to underpin and relevel the buildings
  • Use of driven piles to support the outside structures (lamp posts, access ramps)
  • Use of design-build contract
  • Use of best value concept in awarding the contract
analysis of failure
Analysis of Failure

Possible reasons:

  • Pile Foundation System

- Pile installation monitoring

- use of proper pile – wall thickness

- depth of piles (obstructions)

- Negative skin friction (excessive )

- No provision to minimize it

- The negative skin friction may have

added to the load applied at bearing

analysis cont d
Analysis Cont’d
  • Gas Collection System

- at a landfill site was a poor choice Construction of the gas collection system on grade

- water main breaking and washing out part of the sand layer gas collection system

geotechnical concepts
Geotechnical Concepts
  • Problems in building at landfill sites
  • Total and differential settlements
  • Negative skin friction (means of reducing)
  • Providing proper gas collection system
  • Construction control & monitoring
  • Design-build concept
  • Performance oriented specifications
references
References
  • ASCE’s Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities
  • ASCE’s Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice
  • J. Feld & K.L. Cooper, “Construction Failure,” Second Edition, 1997, John Wiley & Sons.
questions
Questions?

Comments?

installation of minipiles
Installation of Minipiles
  • From the floor surface, holes (7”dia) were drilled through the beams up to the desired depth
  • 4” diameter pipes were inserted
  • The smaller pipe was twisted and pulled out for a short distance

and concrete grout was injected

installation cont d
Installation Cont’d
  • The smaller pipe was withdrawn and high strength steel casing was inserted
  • For piles at locations other than through the existing monotube piles, 12” diameter monotube pile was driven and similar minipile was constructed
installation cont d18
Installation Cont’d
  • After the pile has reached its design strength, the floor was lifted using the pile as a reaction pile
  • The piles were connected to the beams and the original monotube piles were cut off.
pile testing
Pile Testing
  • Four monotube piles were load tested and the ultimate capacity was 150 Tons
  • Two other 12” diameter pipe piles were tested and the ultimate capacity was 200 Tons.