Teaching English for Excellence Managing the link between teacher expectation and student performance
Overview • Research findings • Case studies • Characteristics of students from backgrounds of trauma • Beliefs about ‘good teachers’ • Effects of on classroom practice • Strategies for communicating ‘expectation’
Tell a story about… • A teacher who really “got the best out of you”. • A teacher who shut you down in your learning process or experience.
Research findings • Teacher expectations affect how well and how much students learn. • Student’s belief in themselves is affected by the teacher’s belief in them (or the student’s perception of belief/non-belief). http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content4/student.expectations.html(21/3/11)
Learners from refugee background • About 7 out of 10 refugees in Australia have suffered some kind of war-related trauma. • Some traumas cause physical scars. • Some traumas leave no physical scars, but the victim sustains other effects.
Characteristics of people from refugee background: • Disrupted or minimal formal schooling • Ednal methods smaller range of learning skills and strategies • Some may be fairly passive • Some may be low in internal motivation • Experienced/experiencing extreme loss and grief. • 7 of 10 experienced trauma or torture.
After-effects of torture/trauma that affect the ESL classroom or tutoring • Good days and bad days • Headaches and sickness • Shaking or trembling muscles • Hearing loss • Vision problems • Sleeping problems • Anxiety attacks • Nervousness - fear of authority, need to be ‘invisible’ (don’t light to be ‘spotlighted’), heightened startle response
After-effects of torture/trauma • Diff. concentrating - may ‘shut down’ at times, may experience intrusive thoughts • Difficulty remembering from one day to the next • Irritability • Depression • Aggression • Suicidal thoughts • Some survivors of torture experience long term pain from soft tissue injuries.
Questions: 1. What is your emerging picture of students from refugee background? 2. In light of the research confirming the link between teacher expectation and student performance, how do we need to adjust our concept of our students?
2. According to learners from Africa and/or Asia, what are the main characteristics of a “good teacher”? 3. What are the nice things your students say about you as “teacher”?
What do we need to do to establish an air of“you can learn”,“I believe you will learn”? • Reduce the fear factor • Increase the sense of security
Strategies • Kindness, gentleness • Praise • Eye-contact/smiling • Celebration • Confident leadership in teaching role • Challenges that are within reach • Stimulating content • Relevant methods and techniques • More?