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First, a little quiz… True or False? APA style requirements are different for preparing manuscripts for journal articles and preparing papers for a class. All papers are double spaced. For every citation in the body of the paper there must be a reference at the end, and for every reference there must be a citation.
What is APA style? American Psychological Association
Why APA style? Credibility Consistency Readability Efficiency
Why You Should Document Sources In research writing, sources are documented for these reasons: • To alert readers to the sources of your information • To give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and ideas • To enhance your own credibility as a writer
You must cite whenever you— Borrow the words from any source Borrow ideas from a source by…. • paraphrasing or summarizing parts of it • lifting key words or phrases from it • pulling statistics or facts from it • using information in tables, graphs, or diagrams When in doubt, cite the source!
In-Text Citations • Made with a combination of signal phrases and parenthetical references • Citations in parentheses should be concise yet complete enough so that readers can find the source on your References page at the end of the paper.
Essentials of APA In-text citation Rumbaugh (1995) reported that "Kanzi's comprehension of over 600 novel sentences of request was very comparable to Alia's" (p. 722). Entry in the list of ReferencesRumbaugh, D. (1995). Primate language and cognition: Common ground. Social Research, 62, 711-730.
Two authors: Use an ampersand (&) instead of and. Example: … (Alton & Davies, 1990, p. 567). Three to five authors: Name all of the authors the first time you cite the source. Next time, use et al. Example: …(Blaine et al., 1999).
Signal Phrases are used to… • lead into the quotation or borrowed information • prepare readers for a change of voice • keep the parenthetical citation brief
Signal Phrases • Signal phrases provide clear signals to prepare readers for the borrowed material. • Readers should be able to move from your words to the words you quote without feeling an abrupt shift.
Signal Phrases • Use strong verbs in signal phrases illustrated implied pointed out reported suggested thought wrote argued asserted believed claimed commented disputed
Signal Phrases Example: Flora Davis (1997) described the language skills of a chimp at the Yerkes Primate Research Center. She wrote, “[It] has combined words into new sentences that she was never taught" (p. 67). • note that the period goes after the parenthetical citation.
Signal Phrases Without Author’s Name Example: One researcher reported that a chimp at the Yerkes Primate Research Center "has combined words into new sentences that she was never taught" (Davis, 1997, p. 67).
When is it acceptable to use someone’s exact words without using quotation marks? • Only when you have block indented When do I use a block quotation? When the quotation contains 40 or more words or 4 or more lines of poetry.
Long Quotations • Use block quotations when quoting 40 or more words • Indent five spaces from left margin or one-half inch • Omit quotation marks • Use double spacing for the block
Example of block indenting Desmond (2000) described how Washoe tried signing to the other apes when the Gardners returned her to an ape colony in Oklahoma: One particularly memorable day, a snake spread terror through the castaways on the ape island, and all but one fled in panic. This male sat absorbed, staring intently at the serpent. Then Washoe was seen running over signing to him "come, hurry up.” (p. 42) This shows that Washoe truly understood the concept of sign language as a means of communication with others.
Using a Secondary Source • Name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. Use the phrase as cited in. Example: McClelland’s investigation (as cited in Toner, 1998) found that chimps…
Altering a quote • When using a direct quote in which you insert a word of your own, place square brackets [ ] around the word(s) you have inserted. Example: Seyfarth (2001) noted that "Premack [a scientist at the University of Pennsylvania] taught a seven-year-old chimpanzee, Sarah, that the word for 'apple' was a small, plastic triangle" (p. 13).
If you delete part of a quote, use ellipsis dots . . . to indicate where you have deleted from the original source. Example In a recent New York Times article, Eckholm argued that "a 4 year-old pygmy chimpanzee . . . has demonstrated what scientists say are the most human like linguistic skills ever documented in another animal" (p. A1).
Documenting Electronic Sources In general… • Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited. • Provide addresses (url’s) that work.
In-text Citations for Online Sources • Follow similar format used for print media: (Butler, 2000, p. 5) • If the online source contains no page or paragraph numbers, then follow this example: (Butler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 2)
References for Online Sources • Check the APA Manual for correct format. Make sure you are using the most recent edition. • Here is an example of the format for a document with no date: Greater New Milford Area Health Community, Task Force on Teen Health. (n.d.). Who has time for a family meal? You do! Retrieved October 5, 2002, from http://www.familymealtime.org
Basic Format for Books in Works Cited • To cite APA, include the following information in this order: 1.) Author (Last, First initial) 2.) Date of Publication 3.) Title and Subtitle 4.) City of Publication 5.) Publisher • Example: Highmore, B. (2001). Everyday life and cultural theory. New York: Routledge. • Notice that only the first letter of the title is capitalized!!!
Basic Format for Articles in Works Cited • For an article, include: 1.) Author (Last name, first initial) 2.) Date of Publication 3.) Title of article (not italicized) 4.) Name of Periodical (italicized) 5.) Volume and issue number 6.) Page numbers • Example: Hoxby, C.M. (2002). The power of peers. Education Next, 2(2), 57-63.
When should you use footnotes? • Rarely. • Most style manuals urge you to include the material in the main body of your paper or leave it out. • Use them only if your instructor specifically asks you to.
How do you know when to italicize the title of a work and when not to italicize? • Italicize when the work is published on its own or is one complete source, such as: • Book title • Newspaper title • Movie title • Album title • Title of a painting • Ship’s name • Do not italicize when the title names something that is part of a larger work, such as: • Book chapter • Short story • Essay • Newspaper article • Song
A Writer’s Reference Website Let’s now go to an excellent website for APA guidelines http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/