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Matrix Representations. Lesson 6.1.

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  • On Saturday, Karina surveyed visitors to Snow Mountain with weekend passes and found that 75% of skiers planned to ski again the next day and 25% planned to snowboard. Of the snowboarders, 95% planned to snowboard the next day and 5% planned to ski. In order to display the information, she made this diagram.

  • The arrows and labels show the patterns of the visitors’ next-day activities.

  • For instance,

    • the circular arrow labeled 0.75 indicates that 75% of the visitors skiing one day plan to ski again the next day.

    • The arrow labeled 0.25 indicates that 25% of the visitors who ski one day plan to snowboard the next day.

  • Diagrams like these are called next-day activities. transition diagrams because they show how something changes from one time to the next.

  • The same information is sometimes represented in a transition matrix.

Chilly choices
Chilly Choices Snow Mountain information, the transition matrix looks like this:

  • The school cafeteria offers a choice of ice cream or frozen yogurt for dessert once a week. During the first week of school, 220 students choose ice cream but only 20 choose frozen yogurt. During each of the following weeks, 10% of the frozen yogurt eaters switch to ice cream and 5% of the ice-cream eaters switch to frozen yogurt.

  • Complete a transition diagram that displays this information.

Let u1 represent ice-cream eaters, and let u2 represent frozen yogurt eaters



u1(3)= =211(0.95)+29(0.10)=203

u2(3)= 211(0.05)+29(0.90)=37

u1(1)=220 and u2(1)= 20 u1(n)= u1(n-1)(0.95) + u2(n-1)(0.10) where n ≥ 2

u2(n)= u1(n-1)(0.05) + u2(n-1)(0.90) where n ≥ 2

Ice-cream eaters will approach 160, and frozen-yogurt eaters will approach 80.

On the calculator
On the Calculator give the next week’s values.

  • Open a Graph Window

  • Locate your cursor at the bottom left of the screen and then press MENU and select Graph Type, 5. Sequence, 1. Sequence.

  • Fill in u1(n)= u1(n-1)(0.95) + u2(n-1)(0.10) Initial Term: 220

  • Then enter a second sequence:u2(n)= u1(n-1)(0.05) + u2(n-1)(0.90)Initial Term: 20

  • Press Menu, Window/Zoom and select Zoom-Fit

Add a List and Spreadsheet page. sequences.

In column A generate a sequence in the grey row: =seqn(u(n-1)+1,{1},90)

In column B generate a sequence in the grey row:


In column C generate a sequence in the grey row:


What do two columns B and C indicate?

From a graph screen generate two sequences. sequences.

A set of table values can be viewed by pressing Control T. What do the table values and graphs illustrated?

  • The dimensions of the matrix give the numbers of rows and columns, in this case, 3x2 (read “three by two”).

  • Each number in the matrix is called an entry, or element, and is identified as a ij , where i and j are the row number and column number, respectively.

  • In matrix [A] at right, a31=98 because 98 is the entry in row 3, column 1.

Example a
Example A columns, in this case, 3x2 (read “three by two”).

  • Represent quadrilateral ABCD as a matrix, [M].

  • You can use a matrix to organize the coordinates of the consecutive vertices of a geometric figure.

  • Since each vertex has 2 coordinates and there are 4 vertices, use a 2x4 matrix with each column containing the x- and y-coordinates of a vertex. Row 1 contains consecutive x-coordinates and row 2 contains the corresponding y-coordinates.

Example b
Example B columns, in this case, 3x2 (read “three by two”).

  • In Karina’s survey from the beginning of this lesson, she interviewed 260 skiers and 40 snowboarders.

Example b1
Example B columns, in this case, 3x2 (read “three by two”).

  • How many people will do each activity the next day if her transition predictions are correct?

    • The next day, 75% of the 260 skiers will ski again and 5% of the 40 snowboarders will switch to skiing.

    • Skiers: 260(0.75)+40(0.05)=197

    • So 197 people will ski the next day.

Example b2
Example B columns, in this case, 3x2 (read “three by two”).

  • How many people will do each activity the next day if her transition predictions are correct?

    • The next day, 25% of the 260 skiers will switch to snowboarding and 95% of the 40 snowboarders will snowboard again.

    • Snowboarders: 260(0.25)+40(0.95)=103

    • So 103 people will snowboard the next day.