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Post-WWII De-Colonization in Africa. Senegal: Start of the negritude movement. Movement to celebrate traditionalism in Africa (music, poetry, culture, and values) Spreads through Africa Nationalism. Explosion of new nations in the world.

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senegal start of the negritude movement
Senegal: Start of the negritude movement
  • Movement to celebrate traditionalism in Africa (music, poetry, culture, and values)
  • Spreads through Africa
  • Nationalism
awkward independence
Awkward independence
  • Boers vs. British (vs. natives)
  • 1910 – S. Africa gains self-rule
    • To appease the Dutch, minority whites have all the power
early attempts at liberation
Early attempts at liberation
  • In 1912 – African National Congress was established
    • Designed to unite the African people
  • 1948 – creates TOTAL separation of whites and blacks
    • No social contract
  • 1959 Homeland
    • Blacks (75% of S. African population) crammed into 13% of territory
africans fight back
Africans fight back
  • 1976 – Riots against school policies in Soweto leave 600 students dead
  • NECKLACING of complaint blacks
civil rights leaders
Civil Rights leaders
  • Nelson Mandela
    • Civil Rights leader jailed for 27 years for speaking out against Apartheid
  • Stephen Biko (1977)
    • Civil Rights beaten to death WHILE in police custody

After Soweto, Mandela, Biko…Black erupt

    • 1986 – State of Emergency
  • Desmond Tutu
    • Rallied world to boycott South African goods and isolate the nation
    • Olympic ban
  • White S. African leader F.W. de Klerk bends to pressure, legalized ANC, and released Mandela from prison
  • Over next 18 months, apartheid broke apart
    • Plan a new vote
victory at last
Victory at last
  • April 1994 Nelson Mandela elected president
    • 1996 New Constitution is written
  • Problems today:
    • High crime – rape and murder worst on earth
    • Unemployment (40%) and Poverty (60%)
    • AIDS (millions infected)
legacy of apartheid
Legacy of Apartheid

4 Corner Debate

Nelson Mandela was seen to be a revolutionary leader but as a young man he was arrested for terroristic acts. The memory of Mandela is false.

rwanda 1994
Rwanda 1994

“When we moved in, it was as if we were competing over the killing…seeing people rolling around and screaming in agony, with no arms, no legs…We were not ourselves…We had been attacked by the devil.”

background to conflict
Background to conflict
  • Rwanda is 85% Hutu and 15% Tutsi
    • Under Belgian rule, Tutsis were privileged elite
  • After colonialism, majority Hutus wanted power…and revenge
the genocide
The Genocide
  • 6 August 1994 – Hutu president’s plane shot down
    • Tutsis blamed
  • Immediately Tutsis rounded up and killed
  • 937,000 killed in

100 days

the fallout
The fallout
  • Hutu forces and Interahamwe militias led the massacres
  • Tutsis fought back, took control of Kigali in 1994
    • 2,000,000 Hutus fled in fear
ending the genocide
Ending the genocide
  • Tutsi Paul Kagame new president
    • Hunting down genocide leaders
    • Interahamwe still trying to destabilize
the genocide in rwanda
The genocide in Rwanda

4 Corner Debate

African poverty and instability are a result of the faults of the Africans. Colonization can no longer be blamed for these issues.

sudan 2003
Sudan - 2003
  • Christian and Muslim Black rebel in Darfur
    • Angry over Sudanese gov’t bias to majorities Arab Muslims
    • Created Sudanese Liberation Army
government response
Government response
  • Sudanese gov’t bombs, then Janjaweed militias then do the dirty work
    • Denied by gov’t (but supported and armed by the official establishment)
  • Janjaweed Militia
    • Slaughter, sex camps, and pillaging
    • Refugee crisis
  • 300,000 killed
  • 3,000,000 ethnically cleansed
  • 200,000 refugees
  • Starvation and lawlessness

4 Corner Debate

Darfur doesn’t matter.


Global Water Stress


Famine- Ethiopia

(Band Aid, Live Aid, We Are the World, Hands Across America)

live 8
Live 8
  • Debt forgiveness concerts
    • Led by producer Bob Geldof (Live Aid) and Bono
    • African nations are in HUGE debt as they have borrowed money to develop