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Growth and Development of Infants. November 3, 2011. Growth and development. Do these mean the same thing? Growth = changes in size Development = increase in physical, emotional, social or intellectual skills Both occur rapidly during the first year. Physical development.

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growth and development
Growth and development
  • Do these mean the same thing?
    • Growth = changes in size
    • Development = increase in physical, emotional, social or intellectual skills
  • Both occur rapidly during the first year
physical development
Physical development
  • Follows a sequence
  • 3 basic patterns
    • Head to Foot
      • Head take lead before birth and continues
      • Lift heads first, then can reach for objects, then walk
    • Near to Far
      • Starts at trunk and moves outward
      • Wave arms, then grab, then pick up
    • Simple to Complex
      • Hold bottle, eat with fingers, use fork
growth weight
Growth - Weight
  • One of the best signs of good health
  • Most lose a little after birth and then gain it back rapidly
  • Gain 1-2 pounds for the first six months
  • Second six months, 1 pound/month
  • Triples by the end of the first year
  • May differ depending on heredity, feeding habits, level of physical activity
height
Height
  • Steady for the first year
  • Average newborn is 20 inches
  • By 12 months, average is 30 inches
  • More strongly influenced by heredity than weight
growth charts
Growth charts
  • Show average weight, height, and abilities of children at certain ages
  • General idea, but all have individual rates
development
Development
  • Sight
    • Improves rapidly
    • Blurry at birth
    • 1 week – can see objects 7 to 10 inches away
    • 1 month – can see objects 3 feet away
    • 3 ½ months – almost as good as an adults
    • Prefer patterns with high contrast and color red
sight continued
Sight continued…
  • Depth perception
    • Develops in 2nd month
    • Able to recognize when an object isn’t flat
    • By 3rd month, prefer real objects over pictures
  • Hand-eye coordination
    • Improves with vision improvement
    • Gain increasing ability to move their hands and fingers precisely where they want
    • 3-4 months: begin to reach for object
hearing
Hearing
  • Develops before birth
  • Respond to sounds while still in uterus
  • At birth, can tell the general direction sound comes from
  • Newborns respond to the tone of voice rather than words
smell and taste
Smell and Taste
  • Smell
  • Doesn’t develop before birth
    • Surrounded by amniotic fluid
  • Newborns respond to different smells
  • Within 10 days can distinguish smell of their mother
  • Taste
  • Develops rapidly
  • At 2 weeks, can taste the difference between water, sour liquids, sugar solutions, salt solutions and milk
voice
Voice
  • Understand many words before they are able to speak
  • Physically ready for speech by end of 1st year
  • Learn to speak at different rates
  • Most don’t speak until after 1st birthday
teeth
Teeth
  • Begins at the 6th week of pregnancy
  • 1st set of primary teeth “baby teeth” don’t being to appear until 6 or 7 months
  • Complete set by approximately 20 months
  • Teething can be painful
    • Give teething biscuits
    • Ice cube or something cold
motor skills
Motor Skills
  • Abilities that depend on the use and control of muscles
  • Much of their development is in this area
  • Requires intellectual, social, and emotional development, as well as physical
  • Each area’s development affects other areas
  • One of the 1st – able to lift and control head