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C3 Atoms, elements & compounds. 3.5: Molecules & Covalent bonds 3.6: Giant Structures Req -giant structure. 3.5: Learning Objectives. State that non-metallic elements form non-ionic compounds using a different type of bonding called covalent bonding.

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C3 atoms elements compounds

C3 Atoms, elements & compounds

3.5: Molecules & Covalent bonds

3.6: Giant Structures

Req-giant structure


3 5 learning objectives
3.5: Learning Objectives

  • State that non-metallic elements form non-ionic compounds using a different type of bonding called covalent bonding.

  • Describe the differences in volatility, solubility and electrical conductivity between ionic & covalent compounds. (H/W)


3 5 learning objectives1
3.5: Learning Objectives

  • Supplement:

  • Draw dot-and-cross diagrams to represent the sharing of electron pairs to form single covalent bonds in simple molecules, exemplified by Cl2, H2O, CH4, HCl.

  • Draw dot-and-cross diagrams to represent the multiple bonding in N2, C2H4 & CO2


Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride

Cl

Cl

H

(1)

(2,8,7)

H

(2)

(2,8,8)

Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride

Both hydrogen (1) and chlorine (2.8.7) needs 1 more electron to attain a full outer shell.

H-Cl


(H) Draw dot and cross diagrams for the following molecules and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

N2, C2H4

N2, C2H4

N2 C2H4


Chemical formula of elements

Atom and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

Molecule

Formula

O

O

O

N

N

N

H

H

H

P

P

P

P

P

Chemical formula of elements

  • Each element has a symbol.

  • Some elements exist as particular numbers of atoms bonded together.

  • This fact can be represented in a formula with a number which shows how many atoms.

O2

N2

H2

P4


The formula of molecular compounds

Name and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

Formula

Methane

H

H

C

H

H

Carbon dioxide

O

O

C

Water

H

O

H

The formula of molecular compounds

  • Molecular compounds have formulae that show the type and number of atoms that they are made up from.

CH4

CO2

H2O


1 octane
1. Octane and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


2 propane
2. Propane and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


3 ethanoic acid
3. Ethanoic acid and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


4 hydrogen peroxide
4. Hydrogen peroxide and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


4 ethene
4. Ethene and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


5 methanol
5. Methanol and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


4.1 and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)


20 08 12 bonding answer the questions below
20.08.12 Bonding and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom) Answer the questions below

  • Write down the formula that contains 4 elements.

  • Write down the formula that is made up of 5 atoms.

  • Write down the formula that is a hydrocarbon.

  • Write down the formula that is made up of two elements and two atoms in total


Basic ideas match up
Basic ideas- match up and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)


3 ethanoic acid1
3. Ethanoic acid and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


4 hydrogen peroxide1
4. Hydrogen peroxide and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


4 ethene1
4. Ethene and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


5 methanol1
5. Methanol and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


C3 covalent bonding
C3: Covalent bonding and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

Non-metals combine together by sharing electrons and this is called covalent bonding


How is hcl bonded
How is HCl bonded? and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • HCl


Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride1

Cl and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

Cl

H

(1)

(2,8,7)

H

(2)

(2,8,8)

Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride

Both hydrogen (1) and chlorine (2.8.7) needs 1 more electron to attain a full outer shell.

H-Cl


Covalent compounds
Covalent compounds and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • Covalent compounds are formed when non-metal atoms react together.

  • As these atoms come near their outer electrons are attracted to the nucleus of both atoms and become shared by the atoms.

  • The shared electrons count towards the shells of both atoms and therefore help fill up incomplete electron shells. (Duplet 2 ) (Octet 8)


Covalent bonds

- and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

Figure 1

Figure 2

F

F

X

X

F

F

Covalent bonds

  • Covalent compounds are held together by this sharing of electrons.

  • A pair of electrons shared in this way is known as a covalent bond.

  • It is sometimes represented in full bonding diagrams (see figure 1). Often these bonds are just shown as a pair of electrons (xx) or even just a line (see figure 2).


Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride2

Cl and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

Cl

H

(1)

(2,8,7)

H

(2)

(2,8,8)

Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride

Both hydrogen (1) and chlorine (2.8.7) needs 1 more electron to attain a full outer shell.

H-Cl


(H) Draw dot and cross diagrams for the following molecules and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)


3 5 learning objectives2
3.5: Learning Objectives and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • Supplement:

  • Draw dot-and-cross diagrams to represent the sharing of electron pairs to form single covalent bonds in simple molecules, exemplified by Cl2, H2O, CH4, HCl.

  • Draw dot-and-cross diagrams to represent the multiple bonding in N2, C2H4 & CO2


  • HCl. and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • Cl2

  • H2O,

  • CH4

  • N2

  • C2H4

  • CO2


Ionic covalent bonding
Ionic & covalent bonding and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • When an atom of a metal joins with an atom of a non-metal an ionic bond is formed.

  • When 2 non-metals combine they share electrons to form a covalent bond. The atoms join to form a molecule.


Covalent bonding
Covalent Bonding and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • This involves electrons being shared

  • Full outer shells are formed.

  • Resulting in a stable structure

  • Covalent bonds are made between atoms of non-metals

  • Examples of molecules with covalent bonds include: Water and Carbon dioxide


Basic ideas
Basic ideas and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • Elements are chemically joined to make …………..

  • The connection between the atoms in a compound is called a …………….. bond

  • There are two types of this: ……………… bonding and ...………… bonding

  • The type of chemical bonding between metals and non-metals is ……………. and the type of chemical bonding between non-metals is …………………

  • A substance that is made of two or more atoms bonded together is called a m……………..


Basic ideas1
Basic ideas and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • Elements are chemically joined to make compound

  • The connection between the atoms in a compound is called a chemical bond

  • There are two types of this: covalent bonding and ionic bonding

  • The type of chemical bonding between metals and non-metals is ionic and the type of chemical bonding between non-metals is covalent

  • A substance that is made of two or more atoms bonded together is called a molecule


C3 covalent bonding1
C3: Covalent bonding and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

Non-metals combine together by sharing electrons and this is called covalent bonding


Covalent compounds1
Covalent compounds and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • Covalent compounds are formed when non-metal atoms react together.

  • As these atoms come near their outer electrons are attracted to the nucleus of both atoms and become shared by the atoms.

  • The shared electrons count towards the shells of both atoms and therefore help fill up incomplete electron shells. (Duplet 2 ) (Octet 8)


Covalent bonds1

- and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

Figure 1

Figure 2

F

F

X

X

F

F

Covalent bonds

  • Covalent compounds are held together by this sharing of electrons.

  • A pair of electrons shared in this way is known as a covalent bond.

  • It is sometimes represented in full bonding diagrams (see figure 1). Often these bonds are just shown as a pair of electrons (xx) or even just a line (see figure 2).


Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride3

Cl and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

Cl

H

(1)

(2,8,7)

H

(2)

(2,8,8)

Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride

Both hydrogen (1) and chlorine (2.8.7) needs 1 more electron to attain a full outer shell.

H-Cl


(H) Draw dot and cross diagrams for the following molecules and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)


Covalent bonding in hydrogen h 2

H and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

H

(1)

(1)

H

(2)

Covalent bonding in hydrogen – H2

Hydrogen (1) needs 1 more electron to attain a full outer shell.

H-H

H

(2)


Covalent bonding in chlorine cl 2

Cl and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

Cl

Cl

(2,8,7)

(2,8,7)

Cl

(2,8,8)

(2,8,8)

Covalent bonding in chlorine Cl2

Chlorine (2.8.7) needs 1 more electron to attain a full electron shell.

Cl-Cl


H and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

4

  • How many does carbon (2,4) need?

4

  • How many hydrogens per 1 carbon?

  • Hydrogen (1) needs 1 more electron.

  • Draw bonding diagrams for methane – CH4.


Covalent bonding in carbon dioxide co 2
Covalent bonding in Carbon dioxide – CO and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)2

Carbon needs 4 more electrons but oxygen (2.6) needs 2 more. Therefore, we need 2 oxygen's.

O

C

O

4 electrons: Double covalent bond

4 electrons: Double covalent bond

Represented as =

O

C

O


Covalent bonding in water h 2 o

O and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

Covalent bonding in water – H2O

Hydrogen (1) needs 1 more electron but oxygen (2.6) needs 2 more. Therefore, we need 2 hydrogen's.


Covalent bonding multiple bonds

Cl-Cl and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

O=O

N=N

Double bond

Triple bond

Single bond

Covalent bonding - multiple bonds

  • Mostly electrons are shared as pairs.

  • There are some compounds where they are shared in fours or even sixes.

  • This gives rise to single, double and triple covalent bonds.

  • Again, each pair of electrons is often represented by a single line when doing simple diagrams of molecules.


Task and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • Can you draw a dot and cross diagram for Oxygen

  • Nitrogen

  • Ethene C2H4

  • HCl


Covalent bonding in oxygen

O and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

O

O

O

Covalent bonding in oxygen

Oxygen (2.8.6) needs 2 more electrons to attain a full electron shell.

O=O

4 electrons


N=N and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

N

N

N

N

Nitrogen

(Higher) Nitrogen (2.8.5) needs 3 more electrons to attain a full electron shell and forms a triple bond.

Draw a bonding diagram of nitrogen.

6 electrons


Supplement
Supplement and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • Ensure you can draw structures for the following:

  • Remember the exam is not restricted to using only these! So practice and ensure you understand this!

  • Chlorine

  • Water

  • Methane

  • Hydrogen Chloride

  • Nitrogen

  • Ethene

  • Carbon Dioxide


Covalent bonding animation
Covalent bonding animation and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

  • sc_ocr_c3c2


Draw ‘dot and cross’ type bonding diagrams for each of the following:

H

H

F

H

O

C

O

C

C

H

H

S

H

H

H

H

  • Hydrogen fluoride (HF)

  • Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

  • Ethane (C2H6 and the carbons are joined by a single covalent bond)

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2 and the carbon oxygen bonds are double bonds)


3 6 giant structures learning objectives
3.6 GIANT STRUCTURES the following:Learning objectives

  • Supplement only:

  • Describe the giant covalent structures of graphite & diamond.

  • Relate their structures to the use of graphite as a lubricant and of diamond in cutting.

  • Describe the structure of Silicon (IV) Oxide (Silicon dioxide)


Research task
Research Task the following:

  • Research the following:

  • Structures of Diamond, Graphite & Silicon (IV) Oxide (Silicon Dioxide).

  • Relate the structure to the use of Diamond & Graphite.


Small covalent structures

a simple molecular the following:

structure

covalent bonds

Small covalent structures

  • Sometimes just a few atoms join together in this way.

  • This produces small covalent molecules – often known as simple molecular structures.


Giant covalent structures

a giant lattice the following:

covalent bonds

Giant covalent structures

  • Sometimes millions of atoms are joined together by covalent bonds.

  • This produces a rigid 3-D network called a giant lattice.


Giant covalent structures diamond

Diamond the following:

strong

covalent

bonds

carbon atoms

Giant covalent structures: diamond

  • One form of carbon is diamond.

  • Each diamond consists of millions of carbon atoms bonded into a single giant structure.

  • It is very hard.


Giant covalent structures graphite

strong the following:

covalent

bonds

Graphite

weak

attraction

carbon atoms

Giant covalent structures: graphite

  • A more common form of carbon is graphite.

  • Millions of carbon atoms are bonded into a giant structure but within this structure the layers are only weakly joined.


Giant covalent structures carbon footballs
Giant covalent structures: carbon footballs! the following:

  • During the last 20 years new forms of carbon have been discovered some of which have “closed cage” arrangements of the atoms.

  • These are large but are not really giant molecules.

  • One of them contains 60 carbon atoms and bears remarkable similarities to a football!


Giant covalent structures sand

silicon atoms the following:

oxygen atoms

Giant covalent structures: sand

  • Sand is an impure form of silicon dioxide.

  • Although it is a compound, it has a giant covalent structure with certain similarities to diamond.



Metallic bonding

= positively charged the following:

metal ion

Metallic bonding

  • Metal atoms form a giant lattice similar to ionic compounds.

  • The outermost electrons on each metal are free to move throughout the structure and form a “sea of electrons”.

  • Having released electrons into this “sea” the metal atoms are left with a + charge.

Metallic bonding is the attraction of + metal ions for the “sea of electrons.”


Bonding and physical properties1
Bonding and physical properties the following:

The type of structure that substances have has a huge effect upon physical properties.

These are things such as:

  • Density

  • Conductivity

  • Malleability/ brittleness

  • Melting point

The next few slides illustrate just a few of the general patterns.



Simple covalent compounds
Simple covalent compounds the following:

Carbon dioxide and water are simple covalent molecules


Carbon dioxide does not conduct electricity
Carbon dioxide does not conduct electricity the following:

Covalent bonds

C

O

O

Unlike ions, Carbon dioxide does not have a charge or free electrons and so does not conduct electricity


Water does not conduct electricity
Water does not conduct electricity the following:

Unlike ions, Water does not have a charge or free electrons and so does not conduct electricity


Intermolecular forces in co 2 and h 2 o
Intermolecular forces in CO the following:2 and H2O

  • Carbon dioxide and water have weak intermolecular forces between molecules.

  • Understanding this can help explain the properties of CO2 and H2O


Intermolecular forces
Intermolecular Forces the following:

  • First we must learn about intermolecular forces:

  • Intermolecular forces are forces which act between whole molecules

  • Look at the following slides




CO the following:2

CO2

CO2

Carbon dioxide is a molecule:

  • It has LOW MELTING &….

  • BOILING POINT. (that’s why it’s a gas)

  • This is because of the WEAK forces of attraction BETWEEN the molecules – WEAK INTERMOLECULAR BONDS


Carbon dioxide – CO the following:2 – is a GAS at room temperature, with a low M.P, this is due to weak intermolecular bonds.

Water – H2O – is a LIQUID at room temperature, with a low M.P, this is due to weak intermolecular bonds, BUT stronger than CO2.

CO2

CO2

CO2

H2O

H2O

H2O

H2O

CO2

CO2

H2O


Relating the properties of carbon dioxide and water to their structure
Relating the the following:properties of carbon dioxide and water to their structure

  • The weak intermolecular forces in CO2 and H2O mean these simple molecules have low melting points

  • There are no free electrons so both do not conduct electricity.


Bonding and physical properties the following:

In giant structures all the atoms are tightly bonded together. Usually they are high melting-point solids.

+

+

-

-

Small molecules tend to be gas, liquid solids with low melting points.

-

-

+

+

+

+

-

-

-

+

-

weak forces between molecules

+

+

-

-

+

+

+

-

+

-

+

-

  • Generally substances with giant structures have high melting points and boiling points.

  • Small molecules have melting points and boiling points that increase as the size of the molecule increases.


Bonding and physical properties the following:

+

+

+

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

+

+

+

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

-

+

-

+

-

  • Ionic compounds are very brittle.

  • Opposite charges attract, so neighbouring ions are pulled together.

  • When something hits the substance a layer of ions will be pushed so that they are next to ions with the same charge.

    Attraction becomes:

repulsion!

Blow


Bonding and physical properties the following:

  • Metals are not brittle.

  • The metal atoms are the same and exist in simple structures.

  • If something hits the substance, it simply moves to the next layer along.

Blow


Bonding and physical properties the following:

electrons fixed in covalent bonds

H

H

C

C

H

H

electrons free to move

H

H

  • Covalent substances do not conduct electricity.

  • This is because in covalent substances the outer electrons are fixed (localised) between specific atoms.

  • Metals conduct electricity.

  • In metals the electrons can, given a potential, move anywhere throughout the structure.


Bonding and physical properties the following:

+

+

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

+

-

+

+

-

-

+

+

+

-

+

Molten – mobile Does conduct

Solid – not free to move Doesn’t conduct

-

+

-

  • Ionic substances do not conduct electricity as solids.

  • When molten or dissolved they will conduct (and also undergo electrolysis).

  • This is because the electricity is carried through the solution by the ions which are free to move when the ionic compound is molten or in solution.


Bonding and physical properties the following:

Giant structures generally don’t dissolve easily.

+

+

-

-

Small molecules usually dissolve in a range of solvents. We just separate one molecule from another.

-

-

+

+

strong bonds between the atoms/ions

+

+

-

-

-

+

-

weak forces between molecules

+

+

-

-

+

+

+

-

+

-

+

-

  • Generally substances with giant structures do not dissolve easily (although many ionic compounds dissolve in water for a special reason).

  • Again this is because in giant structures separating the particles involves breaking chemical bonds.



H find and explain
(H) Find and explain … the following:

  • Find these physical properties of water and carbon dioxide.

    • Melting points

    • Electrical conductivity (do they conduct electricity?)

  • Explain why some of the above have low melting points and others high? Use these ideas in your answer

    • Intermolecular forces

    • Freely moving electrons or ions

Support sheet for foundation students

Information sheet for higher students


Recap activites
Recap activites the following:


Activity the following:

Soluble in petrol

Melting Point

Conduct as solid

Conduct when molten

Small or giant?

Metal

Ionic

Small Mol

Giant Mol

Substance

Copy the Table and fill in the blank columns.

Giant

Metal

A

No

High

Yes

Yes

Small

Small Mol

B

Yes

Low

No

No

C

No

High

No

No

Giant Mol

Giant

D

No

High

No

Yes

Giant

Ionic

E

No

Low

Yes

Yes

Giant

Metal

Substance E is peculiar:

Can you suggest an actual substance that E could be?

Can you explain the low melting point?


What type of bonding will the substances have? the following:

Metallic

Ionic

Covalent

Metallic

Ionic

Covalent


Which of the following will have covalent bonding? the following:

  • Sodium chloride

  • Iron

  • Bronze

  • Nitrogen dioxide


Which of the following will have metallic bonding? the following:

  • Copper chloride

  • Graphite

  • Bronze

  • Phosphorus chloride


Which is a true statement about covalent bonds? the following:

  • Usually formed between metals and non- metals

  • Involve transfer of electrons between atoms.

  • Form full electron shells by sharing of electrons.

  • Always involve 2 electrons per atom.


Which of the following exists as a giant the following:molecular structure?

  • Water

  • Carbon dioxide

  • Sodium chloride

  • Diamond


What will be the formula of the compound formed by hydrogen and sulphur?

  • HS

  • H2S

  • HS2

  • H2S2

1

H

1

32

S

16

2.8.6

1


Which of these will conduct as both solid and liquid? and sulphur?

  • metal

  • ionic

  • small molecules

  • giant molecules


Which of these will conduct when liquid but not when solid? and sulphur?

  • small molecules

  • giant molecules

  • metal

  • ionic


Which of these will dissolve in solvents like petrol? and sulphur?

  • small molecules

  • giant molecules

  • metal

  • ionic


Which of these will not conduct at all and is hard to melt? and sulphur?

  • small molecules

  • giant molecules

  • metal

  • ionic


The periodic table

Noble gases and sulphur?

Alkali metals

Halogens

These elements are metals

This line divides metals from non-metals

These elements are non-metals

The Periodic Table


Electronic structure

Electronic Structure and sulphur?


Arrangement of Electrons and sulphur?

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

2

3

Click on action buttons to reveal how electron configuration is built-up.

The transition metals

Skip this


Electrons in Period 3 and sulphur?

Elements in the third period have complete first and second shells. The third shell is completed one electron at a time as you cross the period from left to right.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

3

2,8,1

2,8,2

2,8,3

2,8,4

2,8,5

2,8,6

2,8,7

2,8,8

Skip this


Electrons in Period 1 and sulphur?

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

1

2

Skip this


Electrons in Period 2 and sulphur?

2,1

2,2

2,3

2,4

2,5

2,6

2,7

2,8

Elements in the second period contain 2 electrons in the first shell (complete) and the second shell is completed one electron at a time as you cross the period from left to right.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

2

This atom is

special it has a complete outer shell

Skip this


Electrons in Period 3 and sulphur?

Elements in the third period have complete first and second shells. The third shell is completed one electron at a time as you cross the period from left to right.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

3

2,8,1

2,8,2

2,8,3

2,8,4

2,8,5

2,8,6

2,8,7

2,8,8

Skip this


Group 1 Elements and sulphur?

1

Group 1 elements have 1 electron in the outermost shell which they lose in chemical reactions.

The outer electron is further from the nucleus and so more easily lost as you go down the group.

This is why reactivity increases going downwards

1

1

2

2,1

3

Skip this

2,8,1


Group 2 Elements and sulphur?

In chemical reactions metals tend to lose their outer shell electrons to form positive ions.

So, these elements all form ions with a 2+ charge.

The further the outer shell is from the nucleus the more easily electrons are lost.

CATIONS-form after loss of electron

Anions-gain of electrons

2

2,2

2,8,2

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Group 3 Elements and sulphur?

3

Metals lose their outer electrons to form ions. The charge on the ion produced by Group 3 metals will be +3.

2,3

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2,8,3


Group 4 Elements and sulphur?

4

The elements at the top of Group 4 are non-metals. They bond covalently, i.e. by sharing electrons with another atom.

2,4

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2,8,4


Group 5 Elements and sulphur?

5

The number of electrons in the outermost shell is the same as the group number.

They need 3 more electrons to achieve a full electron shell.

2,5

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2,8,5


Group 6 Elements and sulphur?

The atoms in Group 6 form negative ions (2-) by the addition of two extra electrons. This completes their outer most shell.

6

2,6

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2,8,6


Group 7 Elements and sulphur?

Group 7 elements form 1- ions by the addition of 1 extra electron.

They are most reactive at the top of the group because incoming electrons are pulled into shells that are closer to the nucleus.

7

2,7

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2,8,7


Group 0 Elements and sulphur?

8

The elements in Group 8 (or 0) have complete outer shells.

They are very unreactive and are called NOBLE (or inert) GASES.

2

2,8

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2,8,8


Periodic table

Vertical columns are called GROUPS and sulphur?

Mendeleev

Periodic table

Hello. My name’s Dimitri Mendeleev. In the 19th century I arranged all the known elements into a pattern according to their properties. This pattern is called “The Periodic Table”

Horizontal rows are called PERIODS


Columns of elements

Group number and sulphur?

1

2

0

3

5

6

7

4

transition elements

Columns of elements

What are columns of elements called?

Groups

H

He

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Xe

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

?

?

?


Rows of elements

1 and sulphur?

2

3

4

5

6

7

Rows of elements

What are rows of elements called?

Periods

Period number

H

He

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Xe

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

?

?

?


Tasks
Tasks and sulphur?

  • Starter after finishing both bonding imp.doc

  • Structure and bonding information sheet.doc

  • Bonding_card_sort or info sheet.doc


Plenary
Plenary and sulphur?

  • C3c_self assess quiz.doc

  • C3c_self assess answers.doc

  • .


Don t forget your homework
Don’t forget your homework! and sulphur?

  • Describe the differences in volatility, solubility and electrical conductivity between ionic & covalent compounds. (H/W)


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