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US Foreign Policy:. From WWI to WWII. Key Question:. To what extent was the US “isolationist” between the two world wars?. World War I: 1914-1918. US policy of non-intervention in the first 3 years of the Great War

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us foreign policy

US Foreign Policy:

From WWI to WWII

key question
Key Question:

To what extent was the US

“isolationist” between the

two world wars?

world war i 1914 1918
World War I: 1914-1918
  • US policy of non-intervention in the first 3 years of the Great War
  • BUT, financial and material aid to European nations, especially US’ European allies
  • Merchant ships sunk + Zimmerman Telegram 

Official US entry, April 6, 1917

end of wwi and tofv
End of WWI and TofV

- US President Wilson played a central role in developing the principles of post-war peace in the Treaty of Versailles:

- moral concerns

- economic concerns

- political concerns

slide5

Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy”

The U. S. shouldbe the conscienceof the world.

Spread democracy.

Promote peace.

Condemn colonialism.

slide6

“Wilsonianism”

US foreign policies that:

Pursue the spread of democracy

Spread capitalism

Promote internationalism

us economic priorities
US economic priorities
  • Maintain “Open Door” policy
  • In the 14 points:

- Absolutefreedom of navigation upon the seas (II)

- The removal, so far as possible, of all economicbarriers and the establishment of equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associatingthemselves for its maintenance (III)

political plan for peace
Political plan for peace

League of Nations:

- internationalism

- collective security

- “to promote international cooperation and to achieve international peace and security.”

us senate rejection of treaty of versailles 1919
US Senate rejection of Treaty of Versailles, 1919

Art. 10 “Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members…. In the case of any such aggression… the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled.”

Why?

  • League of Nations too interventionist
  • Problematic Article 10
  • Party politics
military intervention in russian civil war 1918 1920
Military intervention in Russian Civil War, 1918-1920

- Polar Bear Expedition

- 5,000 US troops

  • Am. Expeditionary Force Siberia

- 8,000 US troops

washington disarmament conference 1921 1922
Washington Disarmament Conference, 1921-1922

Long-standing Anglo-Japanese alliance (1902) obligated Britain to aid Japan in the event of a Japanese war with the United States.

Goals  naval disarmament and the political situation in the Far East.

washington naval treaty 1922
Washington Naval Treaty, 1922
  • US initiative for disarmament
  • Result was 5:5:3 ratio for
  • US: Great Britain: Japan
  • - Five-Power Treaty
five power treaty 1922
Five-Power Treaty, 1922

- A battleship ratio was achieved through this ratio:US Britain Japan France Italy 5 5 3 1.67 1.67

- Japan got a guarantee that the US and Britain would stop fortifying their Far East territories [including the Philippines].

- Loophole no restrictions on small warships

dawes plan 1924
Dawes Plan, 1924
  • US banker Charles Dawes drew up a plan:

1. froze German reparations payments for 2 years

2. reduced level of repayments

3. provided loans to German industry

kellogg briand pact 1928
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928

- 15 nations agreed to renounce the use of force for national objectives.

- Eventually, over 62 nations signed.

- Problem=no means of actual enforcement and gave Americans a false sense of security.

clark memorandum 1928
Clark Memorandum, 1928

- Clark pledged that the US would not intervene in Latin American affairs in order to protect US property rights.

- This was a complete rebuke of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine!

Secretary of StateJ. Reuben Clark

young plan 1929
Young Plan, 1929
  • By 1929 Germany not keeping up with Dawes Plan  2nd US initiative
  • Terms:

1. more US loans to Germany

2. reduced payments over 50 years

- Negative response from Germany

young plan 19291
Young Plan, 1929

- For three generations, you’ll have to slave away!

- $26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years.

- By 1931, Hoover declared a debt moratorium.

us french relations
US-French relations

Tense post-WWI due to:

- US pressure to repay war debts

- 5 years between end of war and Dawes Plan (1924)

- rejection of France’s proposals for military and economic cooperation

slide23

Wall Street Crash, Oct. 1929

Late October 1929

Record 28.8 million shares changed hands at low prices

Domestic economic chaos

Worldwide economic crisis followed

slide27

By 1932 25% of US workforce unemployed

  • US increasingly preoccupied by domestic challenges
  • Hoovervilles to The New Deal
slide30

By 1932 25% of US workforce unemployed

  • US increasingly preoccupied by domestic challenges
  • Hoovervilles to The New Deal
  • Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act
  • International situation worsening
slide31

1930s Internationally

  • Japan invaded China
  • - Manchuria, 1931
  • - mainland China, 1937
  • Fascism on the rise in Europe
    • - Nazi Germany’s expansion, 1936
    • - Mussolini’s invasion of Ethiopia, 1936
  • Italy and Germany openly interested in influence in South America
slide32

US responses

  • Monroe Doctrine remained US policy
  • Stimson Doctrine, 1932
    • - Open-Door Policy
  • Good Neighbor Policy, 1933
slide33

FDR’s “Good Neighbor Policy”

1933 policy toward Latin America

Non-intervention & non-interference in domestic affairs

Maintain & increase econ. opportunities

slide34

Cultural evidence of:

Disney goes Latin!

Shoring up support for WWII

Premiered in Rio de Janeiro August 1942

slide36

US responses, cont’d

Neutrality Acts

Ludlow Amendment

FDR’s national addresses

- The Fireside Chat

slide38

US responses, cont’d

Neutrality Acts

Ludlow Amendment

FDR’s national addresses

- The Fireside Chat

Pan-American Conference, 1938