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The Holocaust. Nuremberg Laws 1935. Barred Jews from many jobs. Lose their Civil rights. Required to register with authorities. Must wear the Star of David Prohibited marriage between Jewish and non-Jewish Germans.

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slide2

Nuremberg Laws

  • 1935
  • Barred Jews from many jobs.
  • Lose their Civil rights.
  • Required to register with authorities.
  • Must wear the Star of David
  • Prohibited marriage between Jewish and non-Jewish Germans.
slide3

Two year old Emanuel Rosenthal and five year old brother Avram, of the Kovno Ghetto, who were both later deported to the death camp at Majdanek and murdered by Nazis.

slide4

Nazi gangs raided the Berlin Library and gathered "un-German" books including the works of world-class authors such as Jack London and H. G. Wells, as well as those of Jewish writers. In this photo, Germans crowd around a stall filled with confiscated books soon to be burned.

Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives

slide5

The burning of confiscated “un-German” books in Berlin.

Photos from the United States Holocaust Museum

slide6

A German civilian wearing a Nazi armband holds a sheaf of anti-Jewish Boycott signs, while Nazi soldiers paste them on a Jewish-owned business. Most of the signs read, "Germans defend yourselves against Jewish atrocity propaganda; buy only at German stores."

Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives

slide7

Austrian Nazis and local residents watch as Jews are forced to get on their hands and knees and scrub the pavement.

slide8

The Hitler Youth

Outlawed other youth clubs, the German children were educated physically, intellectually, and morally in the spirit of National Socialism, promising to be loyal and obedient to Hitler, They were taught Nationalism and Anti-Semitism.

slide9

A photo identification card, bearing the official stamps of the Krakow labor office and the General Government, Krakow district, that was issued to the Polish Jew, Cyrla Rosenzweig. Cyrla survived as one of the Schindler Jews.Suesskind Rosenzweig was her husband.

slide10

In 1939, Oskar Schindler set up a business in an old enamel works factory in Poland, employing Jews from the Krakow Ghetto as cheap labor. As the Nazis intensified persecution of the Jews, Schindler increasingly feared for the safety of his workers. He managed to convince the Nazis his factory and thus his Jews were vital to the German war effort and prevented their deportation to the death camps of the East.

slide11

Arrival of arrested Jews at the Austerlitz train station. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum #78893

slide12

Kristallnacht (Crystal Night)

  • 1938
  • Nazi storm troopers and others smash and destroy Jewish owned shops, businesses, and synagogues.

The “Night of Broken Glass”

View of the interior of the Essenweinstrasse synagogue in Nuremberg following its destruction during Kristallnacht.

From USHMM

slide13

The St. Louis was a German ship carrying 930 Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany to Cuba. When the ship set sail from Hamburg on May 13, 1939, all of its refugee passengers had legitimate landing certificates for Cuba.

However, during the two week voyage to Havana, the landing certificates granted by the Cuban director general of immigration in lieu of regular visas were invalidated by the pro-fascist Cuban government. When the St. Louis arrived in Havana on May 27 only 22 Jewish refugees were allowed entry.

Cuban President Federico Laredo Bru then insisted the ship and its remaining 900 Jews leave Havana. The refugees were also refused entry into the United States. Thus on June 6 the ship was forced to return to Europe.

While en route to Antwerp, several European countries were cajoled into taking in the refugees (287 to Great Britain; 214 to Belgium; 224 to France; 181 to the Netherlands).

Those that went to Belgium, France and the Netherlands were soon trapped as Hitler's armies invaded Western Europe and perished as victims of the Nazi Final Solution.

slide15

In October of 1939 amid the turmoil of the outbreak of war Hitler ordered widespread "mercy killing" of the sick and disabled.

slide16

Polish laborers seal off the doors and windows of buildings on the outer periphery of the Krakow ghetto.. USHMM

slide17

Children scale a wall to smuggle food into the ghetto. Conditions were so extreme that they engaged in this activity .

slide18

German soldiers amuse themselves while they force Jews to dig ditches in an

empty lot in Krakow.

A member of the German police kicks a Jew who is climbing onto

the back of a truck during a round-up for forced labor.

slide19

Three Jewish children

in Topolcany, Slovakia.

slide21

One of the most famous photos taken during the Holocaust shows Jewish families arrested by Nazis during the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto in Poland, and sent to be gassed at Treblinka extermination camp. This picture and over 50 others were taken by the Nazis to chronicle the successful destruction of the Ghetto.

slide22

1933 First Concentration Camp

Dachau

Prisoners' barracks in the Dachau concentration camp.

slide23

A prisoner in Dachau forced to stand without moving for hours as a punishment.

A watch tower in Dachau.

slide24

Prisoners from Buchenwald that have been taken into the nearby woods are shown shortly before their execution by the SS.

slide26

The next slide may be upsetting to some of you.

You may wish to avoid seeing it by placing your head on your desk.

slide28

A warehouse full of shoes and clothing confiscated from the prisoners and deportees gassed upon their arrival. The Nazis shipped these goods to Germany.

slide29

Polish boys imprisoned in Auschwitz look out from behind the barbed wire fence. Approximately 40,000 Polish children were kidnapped and imprisoned in the camp before being transferred to Germany. The children were used as slave laborers in Germany.

slide30

A group of Soviet soldiers surveys a German warehouse containing thousands of shoes taken from prisoners before their deaths.

slide33

The entrance to the main camp of Auschwitz (Auschwitz I). The gate bears the cynical Nazi motto "Arbeit Macht Frei" (Work makes one free).

slide34

There were survivors.

The Danish resistance movement, assisted by many ordinary citizens, coordinated the flight of some 7,200 Jews to safety in nearby neutral Sweden. Thanks to this remarkable mass rescue effort, at war's end Denmark had one of the highest Jewish survival rates for any European country.

slide35

In the aftermath of the Holocaust, many of the survivors found shelter in displaced persons (DP) camps administered by the Allied powers. Between 1948 and 1951, almost 700,000 Jews emigrated to Israel, including more than two-thirds of the Jewish displaced persons in Europe. Others emigrated to the United States and other nations. The last DP camp closed in 1957. The crimes committed during the Holocaust devastated most European Jewish communities.