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Battle of Gettysburg. Lee realized that it was crucial to attack the North. July 1-3, 1863 - BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG - in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania The two sides met on accident and

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battle of gettysburg
Battle of Gettysburg
  • Lee realized that it was crucial to attack the North.
  • July 1-3, 1863 - BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG - in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  • The two sides met on accident and
  • On July 3, General Pickett led 15,000 Confed. Troops across open fields - Union mowed them down (= "Pickett’s Charge")
  • Lee was defeated and retreated to Virginia.
  • Over 100,000 people died in 3 days It was the last time the South invaded the North.
gettysburg address
Gettysburg Address
  • “…that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

Abe Lincoln

vicksburg and more
Vicksburg and more
  • July 4, 1863 - another Union victory - VICKSBURG
  • Won by U.S. Grant, cut South in 1/2 and gave the Union control of Mississippi River
  • Grant was then given control of all Union armies  began a "scorched earth" policy to defeat the South
  • What ships were used during Vicksburg?
  • What do you think a scorched earth policy

is or would consist of?

sherman s march to the sea
Sherman’s March to the Sea
  • General Sherman given task of taking Atlanta; his “Sherman’s March to the Sea" saw total destruction (total war) from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia
richmond falls
Richmond Falls
  • Lee realizes the South can’t hold on for long and sends Jefferson Davis a letter to leave Richmond, Virginia.
  • Confederates burn the city of Richmond, Virginia and flee.
surrender at appomattox
Surrender at Appomattox
  • Lee sends General Grant a message that he wants to surrender.
  • On April 9, 1865, Lee and Grant meet at Appomattox Court House in Virginia to arrange the surrender.
effects of the war
Effects of the War
  • Creation of a single unified country
  • Abolition of slavery
  • Increased power to fed. gov't – killed the issue of states rights
  • U.S. now an industrial nation
  • A stronger sense of nationalism
  • Western lands increasingly opened to settlement
  • South was economically and physically devastated, w/ the plantation system crippled...thus Reconstruction (rebuilding the U.S.) was destined - but a deep hatred of the North remained...
economic change
Economic Change
  • Income tax introduced
  • New national paper currency “Greenbacks”
  • Industry begins to replace farming as the basis of national economy
  • Slavery-based economy is destroyed
social change
Social Change
  • Slavery is abolished; millions free
  • African Americans serve in the military
  • Women become active in nursing
  • Conscription/The Draft is introduced
changes in warfare
Changes in Warfare
  • Modernized rifle and minie ball
  • Ironclads make wooden ships obsolete
  • New weaponry increases number of casualties on battlefield.