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An research vision towards future generation of cars using light weight materials. Dr. Shankar Kalyanasundaram June 6, 2007 DERF seminar Program. Some facts about automotive use in U.S.A. Employs millions of people A vehicle is sold every two seconds – excellent for personal mobility

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an research vision towards future generation of cars using light weight materials

An research vision towards future generation of cars using light weight materials

Dr. Shankar Kalyanasundaram

June 6, 2007

DERF seminar Program

some facts about automotive use in u s a
Some facts about automotive use in U.S.A
  • Employs millions of people
  • A vehicle is sold every two seconds – excellent for personal mobility
  • Paved area equal to the states of Ohio, Indiana and Pennsylvania, requiring maintenance costing more than $200 million per day
  • Maimed or injured 250 million people and killed more Americans than have died in all wars in America’s history
  • 8 million barrels of oil is used every day
  • Creates 7 billion pounds of unrecycled scrap and waste every year
  • Emits lots of greenhouse gases (estimate include one-fourth of U.S generation of greenhouse gases)

Reference: Natural Capitalism- The next Industrial Revolution; P. Hawken, A.B. Lovins, L.H Lovins

how about efficiency
How about efficiency?
  • 80% of the fuel consumption is lost mainly in the engine’s heat and exhaust
  • Of the resulting force 95% is spent on moving the car and only 5% is spent on moving the driver
  • 1% of fuel consumed is actually used in moving the passengers (1 cent for every dollar that one spends on petrol)
what should we do
What should we do?

Get rid of cars and use alternate modes of transportation

Holy Cow!!!!

what is the answer
What is the answer?
  • Needs to be ultra light weight
  • Needs to have ultra-low-drag behavior
  • Need a more efficient propulsion system
    • Hybrid-electric
    • Alternate fuels– Fuel Cell Technology
  • Need to be fully recyclable
  • Need to blend in today’s best technology
  • Need to be commercially viable to produce and provide the customers with a “real” value for money
our research focus
Our research focus
  • Develop a research framework for manufacturing light weight materials for mass production (stamp forming)
    • Composite materials
    • Sandwich structures
  • Lightweight materials are currently used in low volume & long production time applications (aerospace)
stamp forming of metals
STAMP Forming of Metals
  • High volume production
  • ~ 2 minutes for each part
  • couple of hundreds of parts per shift
  • Quality indicators
  • Splitting
  • Wrinkling
  • Spring back (Geometrical tolerance)
  • Generally involves room temperature manufacturing
research challenges on light weight material forming
Research challenges on light weight material forming
  • Develop an unified approach that combines numerical (FEA), analytical and experimental work
  • The problem is governed by a large number of highly nonlinear coupled equations (FEA)
  • Need realistic mechanics models to characterize the material behavior, interfaces and failure behaviors
  • We have developed a novel experimental methodology to measure deformation behavior real time during forming – first of its kind in the world for light weight materials
strain measurement
Strain Measurement

Punch

Sample

Cameras

some results on failure behavior
Some results on failure behavior
  • Wrinkle and crack formation
  • Glass-reinforcedFML cup
slide15

Validation of Finite Element Simulations

  • Measurement of surface strain in stamped forms used to validate modeling
  • Major strain for top surface of aluminium cup
    • Aramis: above
    • LS DYNA (FEA) : right
key findings so far
Key findings so far
  • Need to heat the samples before forming
  • The material combinations can play a very critical role in producing a defect free part in addition to process variables
  • Light weight materials can have superior forming characteristics compared to their monolithic metals --- Yes there is a big future for them in commercial productions!!
  • Research is currently underway to produce an unified approach (improved and better than anyone) to handle this important problem in large scale manufacturing
future challenges
Future Challenges
  • Technology Transfer Issues
    • Need a Seamless manufacturing technology (from design to production)
    • Cost
  • System Integration
    • Joining
    • Painting
    • Repair and maintenance
    • Organizational behavioral issues