Writing Effectively Pre-AP English I Adapted from Glencoe Writer’s Choice: Grammar and Composition R. Henderson - 2012
Warm-up 11-14-12 Describe what you think is happening in these photos. What evidence or clues from the photos help you come to this conclusion? How is the treatment of African Americans in these pictures similar to the treatment of lower classes in To Kill a Mockingbird?
Drafting: Writing Unified Paragraphs • Keep to the main idea • Main idea stated in a topic sentence – the first sentence of a body paragraph • Ex. The similarities between Fahrenheit 451 and “There Will Come Soft Rains” is shown through the loneliness and alienation that Montag and the house face after being abandoned by those that were close to them. • Include supporting details • Comes after the topic sentence • Provides one or more details that support the main idea • Sensory details • Specific examples or incidents in the text • Facts and statistics • Reasons to support an opinion
Drafting: Ordering the Details • The way you organize details will depend on your purpose – whether you are narrating, explaining, persuading, or describing. • Types: • Chronological Order: presenting events in the order in which they happened used to organize narrative writing • Spatial Order : the order in which objects appear in a physical place – used to organize descriptive writing; use words like above, below, behind, and next
Drafting: Ordering of the Details Cont. • Types: • Order of Importance : use when supporting details are facts, statistics, incidents, or examples – start with your most important detail to make the biggest impact, or build to the to the most important detail • Cause-and-Effect Order : when you want to show that one event took place because of another – topic sentence states the cause, and supporting details state the effects
Drafting: Writing Coherent Paragraphs • All the sentences are clearly and logically connected to one another; transition words and phrases, repeated words, synonyms, and pronouns link sentences and build a better paragraph. • Checklist for Writing Coherently: • Are all the sentences linked clearly and logically to one another? • Can I repeat any words to help show the connections between ideas? • Have I used synonyms that my readers will be able to understand? • Does each pronoun have an antecedent? • Are there any transitions that I can use to link the sentences?
Drafting: Writing Coherent Paragraphs • Use transition words and phrases from one paragraph to another/one idea to another:
Drafting: Writing Coherent Paragraphs • Use repetition and synonyms • Link sentences by using a word from another sentence; however, too much repetition will bore your readers • Read your work aloud: if you hear the same word too often, replace it with a synonym • Use pronouns • Substitute pronouns for a word, a group of words, or an idea that appears in the preceding sentence • Ex. She went to the store, and she bought snacks for the party. Marta went to the store, and she bought snacks for the party.
Revising: Improving Paragraphs • Revise in the stages of the writing process, and then rewrite your draft to solve any problems. • Revise in stages – break the process down into three parts: • Go through the draft quickly, checking to make sure your meaning is clear. • Read your draft aloud to a partner or small group. • Go back to your final draft and read it carefully one final time.
Revising: Improving Paragraphs • Check for meaning checklist: • Have I presented the main idea clearly? What is the main idea? (Hint: If you cannot easily answer this question after reading your writing, chances are you have not presented your main idea clearly.) • Have I achieved my purpose through my writing? • Who is my audience? Have I written this piece with their needs in mind? • Do I need to give my readers enough information?
Revising: Improving Paragraphs • Have a peer reviewer check your work using these questions: • Does every detail I have selected support the main idea? • Have I organized the supporting details in the most logical way? • Have I included any sentences that are unnecessary because they simply restate the main point without adding any new information or meaning? • Have I made the relationships among my ideas clear? • Use the following checklist for your final reading to check for coherence: • Have I written sentences that flow logically and clearly? • Would pronouns, synonyms, repeated words, or transitions improve the flow of my writing? • Have I used specific nouns and active verbs? • Have I deleted all unnecessary words?
Edit/Proofreading: Final Checking • Check for writing errors in grammar, word usage, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. • Edit your draft for sense: • Are all words used correctly? • Do subjects and verbs agree? • Are verb tenses correct? • Are pronoun references clear and correct? • Have I corrected all run-ons and fragments?
Edit/Proofreading: Final Checking • Proofread and mark your draft:
Tips on Writing • Underline or italicize major titles, such as books, newspapers, and magazines; put quotation marks around titles of shorter works, such as short stories, poems, and magazine and newspaper titles. • Avoid using 1st person “I” or opinion-based statements. • All essays should be broken up into proper essay format with an introduction paragraph, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. • Introduction: includes a thesis statement that introduces the important information to be discussed in the essay and an attention grabber • Body Paragraphs: begin with a topic sentence introducing just that main idea for that paragraph, details or examples, and an explanation of how the details support the thesis/topic sentence • Conclusion: does not introduce any new information, restates/summarizes what was already said
Citing Your Sources • Always use MLA citation method, which includes more than just the URL link to the website where you found your information. • Ex. Website Citation: Smith, David. “To Kill a Mockingbird Analysis”. Books Revealed. Web n.d. http://www.gobooksrevealed.com/tkamb. 11 November 2012. • Cite your source any time you: • Paraphrase or quote any information that you received from another source and is not common knowledge. • Use a picture from the internet or from a print source in a paper, presentation, video, etc.