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William Shakespeare. Widely regarded as the greatest writer in English Literature. Shakespeare. 1564-1616 Stratford-upon-Avon, England wrote 37 plays about 154 sonnets started out tending horses of theater patrons (parking cars) Later served as an actor. Stage Celebrity.

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william shakespeare

William Shakespeare

Widely regarded as the greatest writer in English Literature

shakespeare
Shakespeare
  • 1564-1616
  • Stratford-upon-Avon, England
  • wrote 37 plays
  • about 154 sonnets
  • started out tending horses of theater patrons (parking cars)
  • Later served as an actor
stage celebrity
Stage Celebrity
  • Actor for Lord Chamberlain’s Men (London theater co.)
  • Also - principal playwright for them
  • 1599 - Lord Ch. Co. built Globe Theater where most of Sh. Play’s were performed
shakespeare wrote
Shakespeare wrote:
  • Comedies
  • Histories
  • Tragedies
macbeth
Macbeth
  • Written between 1603 and 1607 (normally said 1606) (Wikipedia)
  • Considered a tragedy
  • Throne of Blood Japanese rendition
  • Lots of blood!
the theater
The Theater
  • Plays produced for the general public
  • Roofless - open air
  • No artificial lighting
  • Courtyard surrounded by 3 levels of galleries
spectators
Spectators
  • Wealthy got benches
  • “Groundlings” - poorer people stood and watched from the courtyard (“pit”)
  • All but wealthy were uneducated/illiterate
  • Much more interaction than today
staging areas
Staging Areas
  • Stage - platform that extended into the pit
  • Dressing & storage rooms in galleries behind & above stage
  • second-level gallery - upper stage famous balcony scene in R & J
  • Trap door - ghosts
  • “Heavens” - angelic beings
how about a little love
How about a little love?

Note to Nasir: 1:32 – 1:35

differences
Differences
  • No scenery
  • Settings - references in dialogue
  • Elaborate costumes
  • Plenty of props
  • Fast-paced, colorful - 2 hours!
actors
Actors
  • Only men and boys
  • Young boys whose voices had not changed play women’s roles
  • Would have been considered indecent for a woman to appear on stage
evolution of english
Evolution of English

'Fæder ure þuþe eart on heofonum si þin nama gehalgod tobecume þin rice gewurþe þin willa on eorðan swa swa on heofonum urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us to dæg and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum and ne gelæd þu us on costnunge ac alys us of yfele soþlice.'

Old English (like Beowulf)

evolution of english cont
Evolution of English (cont.)
  • 'Oure fadir þat art in heuenes halwid be þi name; þi reume or kyngdom come to be. Be þi wille don in herþe as it is dounin heuene. yeue to us today oure eche dayes bred. And foryeue to us oure dettis þat is oure synnys as we foryeuen to oure dettouris þat is to men þat han synned in us. And lede us not into temptacion but delyuere us from euyl.’

Middle English

evolution of english cont1
Evolution of English (cont.)
  • 'Our father which art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts as we forgive our debters. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.'

Early Modern English

(Shakespeare)

elizabethan words
Elizabethan Words
  • An,and: If
  • Anon: Soon
  • Aye: Yes
  • But: Except for
  • E’en: Even
  • E’er: Ever
words cont
Words (cont.)
  • Haply: Perhaps
  • Happy: Fortunate
  • Hence: Away, from her
  • Hie: Hurry
  • Marry: Indeed
words cont1
Words (cont.)
  • Whence: Where
  • Wherefore: Why
  • Wilt: Will, will you
  • Withal: In addition to
  • Would: Wish
tragedy shakespearean
Tragedy (Shakespearean)
  • Drama where the central character(s) suffer disaster/great misfortune
    • In many tragedies, downfall results from…
      • Fate
      • Character flaw/Fatal flaw
      • Combination of the two
theme
Theme
  • Central idea or
  • Insight about life which explains the downfall
round characters
Round characters
  • Characters who have many personality traits, like real people.
flat characters
Flat Characters
  • One-dimensional, embodying only a single trait
    • Shakespeare often uses them to provide comic relief even in a tragedy
static characters
Static Characters
  • Characters within a story who remain the same. They do not change. They do not change their minds, opinions, or character.
dynamic character
Dynamic Character
  • Characters who change somehow during the course of the plot. They generally change for the better.
monologue
Monologue
  • One person speaking on stage; may be other character on stage too
    • Ex. The Prince of Verona commanding the Capulets and Montagues to cease feuding
soliloquy
Soliloquy
  • Long speech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on stage.
    • In R & J, Romeo gives a soliloquy after the servant has fled and Paris has died.
aside
Aside
  • Words spoken, usually in an undertone not intended to be heard by all characters
slide30
Pun
  • Shakespeare loved to use them!!!
    • Humorous use of a word with two meanings - sometimes missed by the reader because of Elizabethan language and sexual innuendo
direct address
Direct Address
  • Words that tell the reader who is being addressed:
  • “A right fair mark, fair coz, is soonest hit.”
  • “Ah, my mistresses, which of you all/ Will now deny to dance?”
dramatic irony
Dramatic Irony
  • A contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader/audience knows to be true
verbal irony
Verbal Irony
  • Words used to suggest the opposite of what is meant
situational irony
Situational Irony
  • An event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience
comic relief
Comic Relief
  • Use of comedy within literature that is NOT comedy to provide “relief” from seriousness or sadness.
  • In R & J, look for moments of comic relief that help “relieve” the tragedy of the situation