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ANIMAL TISSUES. 1. Epithelial tissue. They form the skin and line hollow organs of the body, such as the gut Some epithelial cells have secretory functions Cells are aligned over a connective tissue. They don’t have blood vessels and nerves

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1 epithelial tissue
1. Epithelial tissue
  • They form the skin and line hollow organs of the body, such as the gut
  • Some epithelial cells have secretory functions
  • Cells are aligned over a connective tissue.
  • They don’t have blood vessels and nerves
  • they frequently have protective as well as absorptive, transport and receptor functions.

Animal tissues

  • Epithelial tissue
  • Connective tissue
  • Muscular tissue
  • Nervous tissue

Epithelial tissues are sheets of densely packed, tightly connected cells that cover in­ner and outer body surfaces

stratified epithelial

Keratinsiz çok katlı yassı epitel- AĞIZ İÇİ

Çok katlı değişken epitel-İDRAR KESESİ

Keratinli çok katlı yassı epitel- DERİ

secretory epithelial

Exocrine glands - Endocrine glandsSalivary gland, digestive glands– hormonal glands(hypophysis,thyroid), pancreas,

A gland consists of one or more cells that produce and secrete a product. Most glands are composed primarily of epithelium in which the cells secrete their product by exocytosis.
  • The mucus-secreting goblet cells within the columnar ep­ithelium lining the digestive tract are single cells .Glands with ducts that secrete their product onto the outer surface (e.g., sweat glands and mammary glands) or into a cavity (e.g., pancreas) are called exocrine glands.
  • Glands that no longer have a duct are appropriately known as the ductless glands, or endocrine glands. Endocrine glands (e.g., pituitary gland and thyroid) secrete their products internally so they are transported by the bloodstream. Endocrine glands produce hormones that help promote homeostasis.
tek h crel




Kanallı salgı bezleri- tükrük

Kanalsız salgı bezleri-hipofiz

Karma salgı bezi-pankreas

Yağ bezi

receptor sensory epithelial cells
Receptor(sensory) epithelial cells

Dilde tat alma epiteli

Deride dokunma duyu epiteli

2 connective tissue
2. Connective Tissue
  • Connective tissue binds structures together, provides support and protection, fills spaces, produces blood cells, and stores fat
  • Connective tissue cells are widely separated by an extracellular matrix.
  • Matrix includes fibers( collagen, fibrous and reticular)
  • Ex. Bone, cratilage, adipose, blood

Binds organs together

  • The major cells are fibroblasts, as they get older they are called fibrocytes
  • Contain collagen and elastic fibers
  • Mast cells secrete- heparin(unclotting agent)-histamin
  • Macrophages and white blood cells helps immunity

In cartilage, the cells (chondrocytes), which lie in small chambers called lacunae, are separated by a matrix that is solid yet flexible. Unfortunately, because this tissue lacks a direct blood supply, and nerve endings it heals very slowly. The three types of cartilage are classified according to the type of fiber in the matrix.

  • Hyaline cartilage is the most common type of cartilage. The matrix, which contains only very fine collagenous fibers, This type of cartilage is found in the nose, at the ends of the long bones and ribs, and in the supporting rings of the trachea. The fetal skeleton is also made of this type of cartilage, although the cartilage is later replaced by bone.
  • Elastic cartilage has a matrix containing many elastic fibers, in addition to collagenous fibers. For this reason, elas­tic cartilage is more flexible than hyaline cartilage. Elastic car­tilage is found, for example, in the framework of the outer ear.
  • Fibrocartilage has a matrix containing strong collagenous fibers. This type of cartilage absorbs shock and reduces friction between joints. Fibrocartilage is found in structures that withstand tension and pressure, such as the pads between the vertebrae in the backbone.
  • Extracellular matrix is solid
  • Cells are called as Osteocytes
  • Osteocytes are connected with each other by canaliculi
  • Spongy bone
  • Compact bone- contains haversian system

Periosteum- regenerates the bone tissue


Bone is the most rigid of the connective tissues. It has an extremely hard matrix of mineral salts, notably calcium salts, deposited around protein fibers.

The outer portion of a long bone contains compact bone.

Compact bone consists of many cylindrical-shaped units called an osteon, or Haversian system. In an osteon, matrix is deposited in thin layers called lamellae that form a concentric pattern around tiny tubes called central canals. The canals contain nerve fibers and blood vessels. The blood vessels bring nutrients to bone cells (called osteocytes) that are lo­cated in lacunae between the lamellae. The nutrients can reach all of the cells because minute canals (canaliculi) containing thin extensions of the osteocytes connect the osteocytes with one another and with the central canals.

The ends of a long bone contain spongy bone, which has an entirely different structure. Spongy bone contains numerous bony bars and plates called trabeculae separated by irregular spaces. Although lighter than compact bone, spongy bone is still designed for strength. Like braces used for support in buildings, the solid portions of spongy bone follow lines of stress. Blood cells are formed within red marrow found in spongy bone at the ends of certain long bones.

  • Cells are lipoblasts
  • Stores fat(triglycerides)
  • Have well developed blood capillaries
  • Blood is composed of cells and plasma
  • Plasma- contains water, protein, inorganic mol, hormones, excretory products, glucose, gases
  • Plasma proteins- albumin, globulin, fibrinogen
  • is important for ozmotic equalibrium and clotting
  • Serum doesn’t have clotting proteins
  • Cells- white blood cells(leucocytes),Red blood cells(erythrocytes) , blood platelets-thrombocytes(part of the megakaryocyte)
Red blood cells dont have nucleus and mitochondria. They can not divide. They can not do oxidative phosphorylation. Carry hemoglobin to carry oxygen.
  • Antigen is a protein in the cell membrane of the red blood cells. They function in the recognition of the foreign molecules like antibodies.
  • Antibodies are proteins that are formed by the immune system as a response to foreign molecules.
blood groups
Blood groups

erythroblastosis fetalis
Erythroblastosis fetalis
  • A severe hemolytic disease of a fetus or newborn infant caused by the production of maternal antibodies against the fetal red blood cells, usually involving Rh incompatibility between the mother and fetus.
  • If the mother is rh – , and baby is Rh , mother can produce antibodies against the blood of baby and can kill her.
  • If the mother is rh – and father is Rh + , the care should be taken.
1 kan nda sadece b antijeni bulunan bir ki inin kan grubu nedir
1. Kanında sadece B antijeni bulunan bir kişinin kan grubu nedir?
  • B

2. Kanında sadece B antikoru bulunan bir kişinin kan grubu nedir?

  • A

3. AB rh – kan grubuna sahip olan kişinin antijen ve antikorlarını belirtiniz.

muscular tissue
Muscular tissue
  • Muscles have cantractile fibers that are formed by proteins. These proteins are actin and myosin.
skeletal muscle

Cardiac muscle

Smooth muscle

Skeletal muscle
  • Involuntary
  • Striated because Actin ve myosin molecules are arranged regularly.
  • Long but branched fibers
  • Cells have intercalated discs
  • Nucleus can be 1 or two at the center
  • Voluntary
  • Striated because Actin ve myosin molecules are arranged regularly.
  • Long fibers
  • Multinucleated
  • Nuclei are at the periphery
  • Involuntary
  • Actin and myosin molecules are not arranged regularly
  • Spindle shaped
  • Only 1 nucleus
  • At the center
nervous tissue
Nervous tissue
  • Nervous tissue, found in the brain and spinal cord, contains specialized cells called neurons that conduct nerve impulses. A neuron has three parts: (1) A dendrite collects signals that may result in a nerve impulse; (2) the cell body contains the nucleus and most of the cytoplasm of the neuron; and (3) the axon conducts nerve impulses.
  • Neurons can not divide rich in mitochondria.
  • nervous tissue also contains neuroglia- supporting cells