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Animal Tissues and Organ Systems

Animal Tissues and Organ Systems

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Animal Tissues and Organ Systems

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  1. Animal Tissues and Organ Systems Chapter 33

  2. Homeostasis • Stable operating conditions in the internal environment • Brought about by coordinated activities of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems

  3. Tissue • A group of cells and intercellular substances that interact in one or more tasks • Four types Epithelial tissue Muscle tissue Connective tissue Nervous tissue

  4. Organs • Group of tissues organized to perform a task or tasks • Heart is an organ that pumps blood through body • Heart consists of muscle tissue, nervous tissue, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue

  5. Organ Systems • Organs interact physically, chemically, or both to perform a common task • Circulatory system includes the heart, the arteries, and other vessels that transport blood through the body

  6. Epithelial Tissue • Lines the body’s surface, cavities, ducts, and tubes • One free surface faces a body fluid or the environment simple squamous epithelium basement membrane connective tissue Figure 33.2a, page 568

  7. Simple Epithelium • Consists of a single layer of cells • Lines body ducts, cavities, and tubes • Cell shapes: Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Figure 33.2b, page 568

  8. Stratified Epithelium • Two or more layers thick • Functions in protection, as in skin • Cells in the layers may be squamous, columnar, or cuboidal

  9. Glands • Secretory organs derived from epithelium • Exocrine glands have ducts or tubes • Endocrine glands are ductless

  10. Cell Junctions • Tight junctions prevent leaks • Gap junctions connect abutting cytoplasms • Adhering junctions cement cells together Figure 33.3, page 569

  11. Connective Tissue • Most abundant tissue in the body • Cells are scattered in an extracellular matrix • Matrix is collagen and/or elastin fibers in a polysaccharide ground substance

  12. Soft Connective Tissues Loose connective tissue Dense, irregular connective tissue Dense, regular connective tissue Figure 33.6a-c, page 570

  13. Specialized Connective Tissues Cartilage Bone Adipose tissue Figure 33.6d-e, page 570-571

  14. Blood • Classified as a connective tissue because blood cells arise in bone • Serves as the body’s transport medium • Red cells, white cells, and platelets are dispersed in a fluid medium called plasma

  15. Muscle Tissue • Composed of cells that contract when stimulated • Helps move the body and specific body parts • Skeletal, cardiac, smooth

  16. Skeletal Muscle • Located in muscles that attach to bones • Long, cylindrical cells are striated • Cells are bundled closely together in parallel arrays Figure 33.8, page 572

  17. Smooth Muscle • In walls of many internal organs and some blood vessels • Cells are not striped and taper at the ends Figure 33.8, page 572

  18. Cardiac Muscle • Present only in the heart • Cells are striated and branching • Ends of cells are joined by communication junctions Figure 33.8, page 572

  19. Nervous Tissue • Detects stimuli, integrates information, and relays commands for response • Consists of excitable neurons and supporting neuroglial cells

  20. Neurons • Excitable cells • When stimulated, an electrical impulse travels along the plasma membrane • Arrival of the impulse at the neuron endings triggers events that stimulate or inhibit adjacent neurons or other cells

  21. Neuroglia • Constitute more than half of the nervous tissue • Protect and support the neurons, both structurally and metabolically

  22. Tissue Research • Lab-grown epidermis • Designer organs

  23. Major Organ Systems • Integumentary • Muscular • Skeletal • Nervous • Endocrine • Lymphatic • Respiratory • Urinary • Circulatory • Reproductive

  24. Major Body Cavities • Cranial cavity • Spinal cavity • Thoracic cavity • Abdominal cavity • Pelvic cavity Figure 33.12a, page 574

  25. Planes of Symmetry Frontal plane (aqua) Transverse plane (yellow) Figure 33.12c, page 575 Midsagittal plane (green)

  26. Primary Tissues • In vertebrate embryos, cells become arranged to form three primary tissues Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm • These give rise to all adult tissues