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The Morrison Ross & Kemp Model A Comprehensive Instructional Design Plan Patrick Chadd & Sandi McGuire - 12 February 2010 – INSDSG 619
The Morrison Ross & Kemp Model • The model we are describing in this presentation is the Morrison, Ross and Kemp model. There are nine basic steps in the systematic design process, or what MRK refer to as a "comprehensive instructional design plan“.
Global Project Processes: Planning/Project Management • Two outer ovals surround the whole project and they are processes that are ongoing throughout the project. In the first outermost oval are the planning/project management activities since this is the initial step of any project. These include planning activities, project management, arranging the necessary services to support both the project and the instruction once it is implemented, and any summative evaluation which is required.
Global Project Processes: Revision/Formative Evaluation • In the second inner oval are the revision/formative evaluation activities and the revision/formative evaluation activities are meant to be undertaken at each stage of the development process for the project.
1. Identify Problems & Goals • Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program. • Needs Assessment • Goal Analysis • Performance Assessment • The instructional design process is based on heuristics. Heuristics are general rules or guidelines that we follow to solve a problem. They are flexible, and we can modify them with experience. This step will identify the direction and/or scope of the project.
2. Examine Learner Characteristics • Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning. • Learner/Audience analysis • Contextual analysis • Having the proper information on your audience and facilities can help you design a more effective lesson. This step identifies the constraints and concerns that need to be addressed.
3. Identify Content & Analyze Tasks • Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes. • Task analysis is the process instructional designers use to determine the content to include in the instruction. It is a way of limiting the information needed to just the information our learner needs to achieve the goals and alleviate the instructional problem. This step identifies the information and skills the learner needs to perform as expected.
4. State Instructional Objectives • State instructional objectives for the learner. • This step identifies the objectives for the course and the learner and also how to teach the content of the course.
5. Sequence Content • Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning. • Appropriate sequencing can make the difference between an easy to comprehend lesson and difficult to comprehend lesson. Careful consideration of your content and your learners will help you identify appropriate sequencing strategies that can enhance learning and motivation.
6. Design Instructional Strategies • Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives. • Good instruction involves more than presenting content to our learners. As instructional designers we must determine ways to present the information in an understandable form and then methods to engage the learner so that they process the content and relate it to other information that they have learned.
7. Plan Message & Delivery • Plan the instructional message and delivery. • Effectively enhance the information that goes into your instructional unit by finding the best fit between the goals, the content, and the learner. • Judicious use of signal words, pictures, and typography to highlight important points for the learner.
8. Develop Evaluation/Assessments • Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives. • Evaluation is an important part of the instructional design process and is used to determine if it works and if it continues to work. • Evaluation not only tells us if the students have mastered the objectives, but can also help us identify problem areas. • As you develop your assessment, you should also review your objectives. You might find that you need to revise your objectives in light of your task analysis, strategies, and assessments.
9. Select Support Resources • Select resources to support instruction and learning activities. • Translating the analysis and design opens opportunities to be creative with the instruction and as an instructional designer, we need to consider ways to add interesting and motivating approaches to the instruction.
Circular (Flexible) Design • Since the MRK model is circular and the steps are interdependent, the steps do not have to be followed in any particular order to complete the instructional learning systems design. • The MRK model is learner centered: it provides a good application of the systems approach wherein the instructional design process is presented as a continuous cycle, while retaining an emphasis on how to manage the instructional design process.
MRK is a Cognitive Learning Design Model • Cognitive learning “Places greatest emphasis on the mental process of learning. Instruction is organized into pieces that fit the learner’s capabilities.”
Final Thoughts on Course Design • Not all projects start at the same place or are open to the full range of choices for media and strategies which ID models describe or outline. • In the MRK model a designer can start at any point in the process which makes sense for a particular project and change the order of the steps and revisions as they make sense in a project. • Another point worthy of note is that in today's world instructional designers are often told what the development and delivery technology will be and, sometimes, what the instructional strategies will be.
References • Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., & Kemp, J.E. (2007). Designing effective instruction (5th Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. • Wedman, J., & Tessmer, M. (1991). Adapting instructional design to project circumstance: The layers of necessity model. Educational Technology, 31 (7), 48-52. • Gustafson, K., & Branch, R. M. (1997). Instructional design models. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. • The Herridge Group, Inc. "The Use of Traditional Instructional Systems Design Models for eLearning." Schwegler 2000: 2-2. Print..