You’ll Need: Pen/Pencil and Paper. Last Night’s Homework: None AP US Government Monday, February 4, 2013
You’ll Need: Pen/Pencil and Paper. Last Night’s Homework: IOUSA Questions AP US Government Tuesday, February 5, 2013
The Federal Bureaucracy Chapter 15
Introduction • Classic conception of bureaucracy (Max Weber) • Hierarchical authority structure • Uses task specialization • Operate on the merit principle • Behave with impersonality • A well-organized machine with lots of working parts.
The Bureaucrats • Bureaucrat: An employee of the federal government who works to carry out its laws • Some Bureaucratic Myths and Realities • Americans dislike bureaucrats. • Bureaucracies are growing bigger each year. • Most federal bureaucrats work in Wash, D.C. • Bureaucracies are ineffective, inefficient and always mired in red tape.
The Bureaucrats • Growth in Civilian Government Employees (Figure 15.1)
The Bureaucrats • Who They Are and How They Got There • Most demographically representative part of government. • Diversity of jobs mirrors the private sector.
The Bureaucrats • Bureaucrats are hired in one of two ways 1. Through the Civil Service System • Take an entrance exam • Hiring and promotion based on merit (talent and skill) NOT patronage (job given for political reasons) • Office of Personnel Management: The federal office in charge of most of the government’s hiring.
The Bureaucrats Also hired through 2. Presidential recruitment • the Plum Book lists the very top jobs available for Presidential appointment. • Presidents work to find capable people to fill the positions. • Some plum jobs (ambassadorships) are patronage. • Many positions require Congressional approval
Bureaucracies (Review) • Department of Defense has the most civil employees • US Postal Service is next • Overall, the number of bureaucrats has NOT increased in decades • Bureaucrats are not easily removed from office
Bureaucratic Help Wanted Poster • Visit http://www.usajobs.gov • Click on “Students and Recent Graduates” and then “Search Jobs”. • Spend a few minutes looking for a job that would match your interests. • Check out all of the different agency options on the left side of the page. • Select one job posting that you’ll create a help wanted poster for.
Bureaucratic Help Wanted Poster (10points) • Poster Requirements: • Title of Job • Which Department and Agency It’s In • Location(s) • Salary Range • Qualifications • Job Requirements • 1-2 paragraph job description (in your own words)
You’ll Need: Pen/Pencil and Paper. Last Night’s Homework: None AP US Government Wednesday, February 6, 2013
How Bureaucracies Are Organized 1. By Cabinet Departments • 15 Cabinet departments headed by a secretary • Department of Justice headed by Attorney General • Each has its own budget, staff and policy areas Rick Perry: http://youtu.be/7GSmDsAET7I
How Bureaucracies Are Organized 2. By Regulatory Agencies • Oversees a particular aspect of the economy • Creates regulations that protect people • Can enforce regulations by judging disputes • Headed by a commission (confirmed by Congress) rather than a secretary • Closely involved with interest groups that want to influence regulations
How Bureaucracies Are Organized 3. By Government Corporations • Business like – provide services like private companies and typically charge for their services. • Postal Service, Amtrak are examples
How Bureaucracies Are Organized 4. By Independent Executive Agencies • All other executive agencies • Most were created for a specific purpose • GSA and NASA are examples
Postal Service Article Answer on the back side of the article • Why are some members of Congress “bewildered” by the announcement? • How much money is this change estimated to save? • How many Americans support this change according to Patrick Donahoe (Postmaster General)? • What has increased 14% since 2010? • The Postal service loses about $6 billion a year. What do you think should be done to help decrease its losses? (3-5 sentences) Important Note: The USPS does not use taxpayer money.
You’ll Need: Pen/Pencil and Paper. Last Night’s Homework: None AP US Government Thursday, February 7, 2013
The Federal Bureaucracy Chapter 15
Bureaucracies as Implementers • What Implementation Means • To enact and enforce rules and procedures in order to carry out Congress’ laws • Implementation includes: • Creating / assigning an agency to the policy • Translating policy into rules, regulations and forms. • Coordinating resources to achieve the goals. • Overseeing day-to-day operation of the federal government
Bureaucracies as Implementers • Policy Implementation is NOT always successful because: • Program design is flawed • Lack of clarity • Congressional laws are ambiguous and imprecise. • Sometimes the laws conflict with each other. • Lack of Resources • Agencies may be big, but not in the right areas.
Bureaucracies as Implementers • Policy Implementation is NOT always successful because: • Lack of Resources • Many different types of resources are needed: personnel, training, supplies & equipment. • May also lack the authority to act. • Administrative Routine • SOPs bring uniformity to complex organizations. • It is often difficult to change the routines.
Bureaucracies as Implementers • Policy Implementation is NOT always successful because: • Administrator’s Dispositions • Administrative discretion is the ability to select among various responses. • Street-level bureaucrats have the most discretion. • Fragmentation • Some policies are spread among several agencies. • Some agencies have different rules for the same policy.
Bureaucracies as Implementers • Reorganization of the bureaucracy for the sake of efficiency is unlikely because it would disrupt well-established iron triangles (congressional committees, the agencies they oversee and interest groups)
Bureaucracies as Implementers • A Case Study: The Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Generally considered a success. • Had a clear, concise goal. • The implementation was clear. • Those carrying out the law had obvious authority and vigor to do so.
AP Govt. Debates 50 Points
You’ll Need: Laptop Last Night’s Homework: Continue Reading Chapter 15. AP US Government Friday, February 8, 2013
Debate Topics • Should public schools be allowed to teach creationism alongside evolution? • Yes: Bri and Patrick • No: Eane, Brittney, and Ashley • Should physician-assisted suicide, as defined in Oregon’s Death With Dignity Act, be legal? • Yes: Grant, Aiden, and Gordon • No: Keidren, Spenser, and Andrew • Is it justifiable to execute convicted criminals? • Yes: Savannah, Kenny, and Jack • No: Nova, Melody, and Jorrin • Should unhealthy food be banned in schools? • Yes: Tirzah and Yair • No: Housten, Carly, and Maddy
Debate Schedules • Thursday 2/7 • Introduce Debate Topics • Gather Research Sources • Friday 2/8 (assembly schedule) • Begin Debate Research • Monday 2/11 • Finish Chapter 15 Notes • Tuesday 2/12 • Chapter 15 Test • Wednesday 2/13 • Unit 4 Review: Congress, Presidency, Budget, Bureaucracy. • Thursday 2/14 • Unit 4 Review: Congress, Presidency, Budget, Bureaucracy. • Friday 2/15 • Unit 4 Exam • Tuesday 2/19 to Friday 2/22 • Debates • Begin Unit 5
You’ll Need: Chapter 15 Notes Last Night’s Homework: Finish Reading Chapter 15. AP US Government Tuesday, February 12, 2013
The Federal Bureaucracy Chapter 15
Bureaucracies as Regulators • Bureaucracies oversee policies once they are in place through regulations • Regulation: Use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector. • Federal agencies check, verify and inspect many of the products and services we take for granted.
Bureaucracies as Regulators • All products and many daily activities are shaped by regulation Examples: • Establish guidelines for a program • Enforce guidelines (issue permits, inspections) • Can change rules of a policy and apprehend violators
Bureaucracies as Regulators • Toward Deregulation • Deregulation: The lifting of restrictions on business, industry, and professional activities. • Regulatory problems: • Raises prices • Hurts U.S.’s competitive position abroad • Does not always work well • But some argue regulation is needed.
Understanding Bureaucracies • Bureaucracy and Democracy • Presidents Try to Control the Bureaucracy • Appoint the right people. • Issue executive orders. • Tinker with the agency’s budget. • Reorganize an agency.
Understanding Bureaucracies • Bureaucracy and Democracy • Congress Tries to Control the Bureaucracy • Influence presidential appointments. • Tinker with the agency’s budget. • Hold hearings. • Rewrite the legislation or make it more detailed.
Understanding Bureaucracies • Bureaucracy and Democracy • Iron Triangles and Issue Networks • Iron Triangles: A mutually dependent relationship between bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees. • Exist independently of each other. • They are tough, but not impossible, to get rid of.
Understanding Bureaucracies • Bureaucracy and the Scope of Government • Many state that this is an example of a government out of control. • But, the size of the bureaucracy has shrunk. • Some agencies don’t have enough resources to do what they are expected to do. • Only carry out the policies, Congress and the president decide what needs to be done.
Chapter 15 Review • Read the entire Chapter 15 Review packet and complete the following: • Create 5-10 multiple choice quiz questions based on the information from: • The review packet. • Your chapter 15 notes • The chapter 15 homework. • Have 1-2 classmates take your quiz and give them feedback on how they’ve done.