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How To Make A Decent Disease Card!. EXAMPLE: Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSS). What Categories Do You Need To Consider?. The Name/s of the Disease Common Names The Causal Agent & its Characteristics Scientific Name: Genus & species, strain etc Bacterial, Fungal, Protozoan, viral

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how to make a decent disease card

How To Make A Decent Disease Card!

EXAMPLE:

Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSS)

what categories do you need to consider
What Categories Do You Need To Consider?
  • The Name/s of the Disease
    • Common Names
  • The Causal Agent & its Characteristics
    • Scientific Name: Genus & species, strain etc
    • Bacterial, Fungal, Protozoan, viral
    • Appearance & shape
  • Worldwide Importance & Occurrence
  • Disease Reservoirs
  • Disease Transmission
  • Portals of Entry & Exit
  • Unique Toxins or Virulence Factors
  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected
  • Disease Signs & Symptoms
  • Disease Identification, Confirmation & Diagnosis
  • Prevention & Treatment
  • Anything else e.g. predisposed individuals etc
where do i get the info
Where Do I get the Info?
  • Index (Get page nos & chap no.)
  • Read the chapter & general information about the disease & the causal agent.
  • Look at all the pictures – the text is useful too.
  • Chapter Summary tables.
  • Chapter ‘Checkpoints’.
  • Chapter Summary.
  • Appendix D Disease tables by System.
where do i get the info4
Where Do I get the Info?
  • Textbook Index (6th Ed. p. 538-41.

7th Ed. p. 540)

  • Read the chapter (18) & general information about the disease & the causal agent.
  • Look at all the pictures (Figs 18.1, 18.2, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, Table 18.1, 18.2) – the text is useful too.
  • Chapter summary tables (Table 18.1).
  • Chapter ‘Checkpoints’ (7th Ed.p.543,

6th Ed. p. 544 ).

  • Chapter summary (7th Ed. p. 560,

6th Ed. P. 563).

  • Appendix D disease tables by system

(page D-4, Table D.3 ‘Infections of Skin & Skin Wounds’).

disease card categories
Disease Card Categories?
  • The name of the disease
  • The causal agent & its characteristics
  • Worldwide importance & occurrence
  • Disease reservoirs
  • Disease transmission
  • Portals of entry & exit
  • Virulence factors & unique toxins
  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected
  • Disease signs & symptoms
  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis
  • Treatment & Prevention
  • Anything else
the name of the disease
The Name of The Disease?

Common name or names?

  • Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSS) or
  • Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS)
  • or
  • Toxigenic Staphylococcal Disease
disease card categories7
Disease Card Categories?
  • The name of the disease
  • The causal agent & its characteristics
  • Worldwide importance & occurrence
  • Reservoirs
  • Transmission
  • Portals of entry & exit
  • Virulence factors & unique toxins
  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected
  • Disease signs & symptoms
  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis
  • Prevention & Treatment
  • Anything else
the causal agent genus species strain serovar pathovar
The Causal Agent – Genus speciesStrain/Serovar/Pathovar

Staphylococcus aureus

BACTERIUM

  • Gram positive cocci.
  • Irregular clusters of cells.
  • Non-motile.
  • Resistant to drying, heat, harsh conditions (salt, pH, temp).
  • Facultative anaerobe.
disease card categories9
Disease Card Categories?
  • The name of the disease
  • The causal agent & its characteristics
  • Worldwide importance & occurence
  • Reservoirs
  • Transmission
  • Portals of entry & exit
  • Virulence factors & unique toxins
  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected
  • Disease signs & symptoms
  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis
  • Prevention & Treatment
  • Anything else
worldwide importance
Worldwide Importance
  • Ubiquitous
  • Common wherever there are humans!
disease card categories11
Disease Card Categories?
  • The name of the disease
  • The causal agent & its characteristics
  • Worldwide importance & occurrence
  • Reservoirs
  • Transmission
  • Portals of entry & exit
  • Virulence factors & unique toxins
  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected
  • Disease signs & symptoms
  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis
  • Prevention & Treatment
  • Anything else
disease reservoirs
Disease Reservoirs
  • Mainly humans – normal flora
  • Common (20 – 60% carriage rate)
    • skin
    • nostrils
    • nasopharynx
    • oral cavity
    • intestine

(No animal hosts - not a zoonosis)

disease card categories13
Disease Card Categories?
  • The name of the disease
  • The causal agent & its characteristics
  • Worldwide importance & occurrence
  • Reservoirs
  • Transmission
  • Portals of entry & exit
  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected
  • Virulence factors & unique toxins
  • Disease signs & symptoms
  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis
  • Prevention & Treatment
  • Anything else
disease transmission
Disease Transmission
  • Nosocomial - newborn nurseries
  • Close contact
  • Nasal and oral droplets
  • Fomites
  • Poor hygiene
  • Tissue injury

(No animal vectors)

disease card categories15
Disease Card Categories?
  • The name of the disease
  • The causal agent & its characteristics
  • Worldwide importance & occurrence
  • Reservoirs
  • Transmission
  • Portals of entry & exit
  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected
  • Virulence factors & unique toxins
  • Disease signs & symptoms
  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis
  • Prevention & Treatment
  • Anything else
portals
Portals
  • Skin
  • Eyes
  • Umbilical Stump
    • Entrance may

Differ from Exit

disease card categories17
Disease Card Categories?
  • The name of the disease
  • The causal agent & its characteristics
  • Worldwide importance & occurrence
  • Reservoirs
  • Transmission
  • Portals of entry & exit
  • Virulence factors & unique Toxins
  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected
  • Disease signs & symptoms
  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis
  • Prevention & Treatment
  • Anything else
toxins
Toxins
  • Exfoliative Toxins cause

skin at the dermis to shed (desquamation) & peel.

Virulence Factors resist phagocytosis & antibiotics, destroy host tissue & invade the blood.

  • Coagulase
  • Many others e.g. hyaluronidase,staphylokinase etc
  • Antibiotic Resistance enzymes
    • Penicillinases

SSS - Sub-corneal splitting

disease card categories19
Disease Card Categories?
  • The name of the disease
  • The causal agent & its characteristics
  • Worldwide importance & occurrence
  • Reservoirs
  • Transmission
  • Portals of entry & exit
  • Virulence factors & unique toxins
  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected
  • Disease signs & symptoms
  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis
  • Prevention & Treatment
  • Anything else
affected systems organs tissues
Affected Systems/Organs/Tissues
  • Skin
  • Toxemia

Signs & Symptoms

  • Infants & Children < 4 years old
  • Rash followed by painful red flush over entire body
  • Blisters
  • Desquamation of the epidermidis
      • Exfoliative toxins
disease card categories21
Disease Card Categories?
  • The name of the disease
  • The causal agent & its characteristics
  • Worldwide importance & occurrence
  • Reservoirs
  • Transmission
  • Portals of entry & exit
  • Virulence factors & unique Toxins
  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected
  • Disease signs & symptoms
  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis
  • Prevention & Treatment
  • Anything else
diagnosis lab i d
Diagnosis/Lab I.D.
  • Isolation
    • pus, tissue exudates, urine, blood
  • Inoculation of media
    • Blood agar (sheep/rabbit)
    • Mannitol salt agar
  • Gram-stain
  • Catalase test (Staph vs Strep)
  • Coagulase test (S. aureus vs S. species)
  • Rapid multitest system e.g.anaerobic & ferments mannitol
  • Latex bead agglutination test
disease card categories23
Disease Card Categories?
  • The name of the disease
  • The causal agent & its characteristics
  • Worldwide importance & occurrence
  • Reservoirs
  • Transmission
  • Portals of entry & exit
  • Virulence factors & unique Toxins
  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected
  • Disease signs & symptoms
  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis
  • Prevention & Treatment
  • Anything else
treatment
Treatment
      • Toxemia treatment = lengthy, intensive therapy (oral/ingested drugs)
      • Multidrug Resistance (MDR)
        • PenicillinR, AmpicillinR, etc
      • Perform lab. antibioticR tests

Prevention = Universal Precautions

  • Hygiene & handwashing
  • Cleansing of skin wounds
  • Disposal - dressings & discharges
  • Isolation – patients with open lesions
  • Care with catheters & needles
  • Ban nasal Staph. carriers - nurseries & delivery rooms
  • No vaccine yet
    • CAN NEVER BE ELIMINATED if humans are around!
disease card categories25
Disease Card Categories?
  • The Name of the disease
  • The Causal Agent & its characteristics
  • Worldwide importance & occurrence
  • Reservoirs
  • Transmission
  • Portals of Entry & Exit
  • Virulence factors & unique Toxins
  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected
  • Disease Signs & Symptoms
  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis
  • Prevention & Treatment
  • Anything else
anything else predisposing conditions etc
Anything Else ?Predisposing Conditions… etc
  • Under 4 years old
  • Neonates
  • Pyogenic (generates pus)
  • Tough organism!
what categories do you need to consider27
What Categories Do You Need To Consider?
  • The Name/s of the Disease
    • Common Names
  • The Causal Agent & its Characteristics
    • Scientific Name: Genus & species, strain etc
    • Bacterial, Fungal, Protozoan, viral
    • Appearance & shape
  • Worldwide importance & occurrence
  • Reservoirs
  • Transmission
  • Portals of Entry & Exit
  • Unique Toxins or Factors
  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected
  • Disease Signs & Symptoms
  • Disease Identification, Confirmation & Diagnosis
  • Prevention & Treatment
  • Anything else
what diseases see disease list
What Diseases? See Disease List!
  • Bacterial Diseases
  • Cocci of Medical Importance
  • Staphylococcal Disease: Scalded Skin Syndrome
  • Staphylococcal Osteomyelitis
  • Toxic Shock Syndrome
  • Impetigo
  • MRSA and VRE
  • Streptococcal Disease: Impetigo
  • Pharyngitis
  • Scarlet Fever
  • Rheumatic Fever
  • Acute glomerulonephritis
  • Endocarditis
  • Pneumococcal pneumonia
  • Otitis media
  • Necrotizing Fasciitis
  • Dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis
  • Neisseria: Gonococcus: gonorrhea, ophthalmia neonatorum
  • Meningococcus: meningitis
  • Rods of Medical Importance
  • Endospore formers: Anthrax: cutaneous and pulmonary
  • Gas gangrene
  • Tetanus
  • Clostridial gastroenteritis & Clostridial colitis
  • Botulism
  • Non-endospore formers: Listeriosis
  • Diphtheria
  • Tuberculosis
  • Leprosy
  • Gram negative Pseudomonads
  • Whooping Cough
  • Legionnaires Disease
  • Salmonellosis
  • Shigellosis
  • Enterotoxigenic E. coli
  • Spiral and Unusual Syphilis: primary, secondary, and tertiary
  • Leptospirosis
  • Lyme Disease
  • Cholera
  • Campylobacter vibrios
  • Chlamydial infections, infantile conjunctivitis
what diseases see disease list29
What Diseases? See Disease List!
  • Fungi of Medical Importance
  • Dermatophytoses (cutaneous infections)
  • Ringworm infections: Tinea versicolor,
  • Ringworm of the body, groin, foot, hand, and nail
  • Systemic Infections
  • Candidiasis
  • Pneumocystis pneumonia
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Coccidioidomycosis
  • Parasitic Infections of Medical Importance
  • Protozoan infections
  • Amoebiasis
  • Giardiasis
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Malaria
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Trypanosomiasis
  • Helminth Infections
  • Ascariasis Shistosomiasis
  • Pinworm Tapeworm
  • Viral Infections of Medical Importance
  • DNA Viruses
  • Smallpox
  • Herpes simplex I and II
  • Chicken pox and Shingles
  • Infectious Mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr Virus)
  • Hepatitis B
  • Genital Warts
  • RNA Viruses
  • Influenza
  • Croup
  • Mumps
  • Red Measles (Rubeola)
  • German Measles (Rubella)
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
  • HIV and AIDS
  • West Nile Virus
  • Polio
  • Hepatitis A and C
  • Prions
  • CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)
  • BSE (Bovine spongiform encephaly), mad cow disease
how should i organize my card chart
How Should I Organize My Card/Chart?
  • Any way you want!
  • Be creative!
  • Use cards or charts!
  • Try it out & see what works for YOU!
  • DO NOT copy or photocopy

other people’s work!

  • You must write & make your own cards.
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