fascioloides magna giant deer fluke l.
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Fascioloides magna “Giant Deer Fluke”. Different behavior and pathology in different hosts. Fascioloides magna “Giant Deer Fluke”. Deer and Elk (normal hosts)—Liver migration, then matures in thin-walled fibrous cysts connected with bile ducts. (Well tolerated; eggs shed in feces). .

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fascioloides magna giant deer fluke
Fascioloides magna “Giant Deer Fluke”
  • Different behavior and pathology in different hosts.
fascioloides magna giant deer fluke2
Fascioloides magna “Giant Deer Fluke”
  • Deer and Elk (normal hosts)—Liver migration, then matures in thin-walled fibrous cysts connected with bile ducts. (Well tolerated; eggs shed in feces).
fascioloides magna giant deer fluke3
Fascioloides magna “Giant Deer Fluke”
  • Cattle, bison and swine—Liver migration, then encapsulation in thick-walled, closed cysts and no eggs are shed!
fascioloides magna giant deer fluke4
Fascioloides magna “Giant Deer Fluke”
  • Sheep and goats: extensive, uninterrupted hepatic migration with out encapsulation; usually fatal; 1 fluke can kill a sheep or goat!
pathology
Pathology
  • Pathology in C. sinensis and D. dendriticum: distended bile ducts and erosion of epithelium lining, but no secondary pathology like in F. hepatica!
treatment
Treatment
  • Preziquantel (except for F. hepatica).
  • Rafoxanide: is the drug of choice for F. hepatica!
diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • Look for eggs in feces!
  • But hard to diagnose (why?).
  • SPURIOUS INFECTIONS!
aquatic vegetation
Aquatic Vegetation

Water Chestnuts

fasciolopsis buski
Fasciolopsis buski
  • Order: Echinostomatiformes
  • Humans, pigs
  • Orient
  • Large (7.5 cm)
  • Life cycle similar to Fasciola
pathology and symptoms
Pathology and Symptoms
  • Severity depends on worm burden
  • Irritation
  • Excess mucous secretion
  • Ulceration, hemorrhage, Abscess
  • Obstruction
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Sensitization to worm metabolites
    • Leukocytosis
    • Anemia
    • Eosinophilia
    • Nausea/diarrhea
    • Edema of face and intestinal wall
    • Death
treatment14
Treatment
  • Praziquantel
epidemiology
Epidemiology
  • Who gets infected?
  • Rural to semi-urban areas
  • School age children
    • Prevalence
      • 57% China
      • 25% Taiwan
      • 50% Bangladesh
      • 60% India
      • 10% Thailand
epidemiology16
Epidemiology
  • How do you get fasciolopsiasis?
  • Ingest metacercariae
  • Commercially raised aquatic plants

Water chestnut

    • Water caltrop
    • Water hyacinth
    • Water lotus
    • Water lily
    • Watercress
epidemiology17
Epidemiology
  • Lack of regulation on food industry
  • Food preparation
  • Sanitation (sewage)
  • Night soil
  • Pigs
    • Habitat
    • Food
digestive tract trematodes18
Digestive Tract Trematodes
  • FAMILY ECHINOSTOMATIDAE - intestinal parasites recognized by their anterior collar of spines.
  • Echinostoma revolutum - Cosmopolitan parasite of birds and mammals– shows low host specificity
  • Human cases?
morphology of adult echinostoma revolutum
Morphology of Adult Echinostoma revolutum

Adults are elongate, up to an inch in length.

Characteristic structure is: their circumoral collar of spines arranged in two rows.

37 spines in E. revolutum.

Internal organs are distinct and easy to identify.

morphology of adult echinostoma revolutum20
Morphology of Adult Echinostoma revolutum

Collar of spines around oral sucker

uterus

Vitellaria Testes Mehlis’ gland Ovary

life cycle of echinostoma revolutum
Life Cycle of Echinostoma revolutum

Parasite shows low host specificity throughout cycle

1. Adults occur in birds and mammals.

2. Eggs are released via the feces into an aquatic habitat.

3. Miracidia hatch, swim to snail, and penetrate.

life cycle of echinostoma revolutum22
Life Cycle of Echinostoma revolutum

4. Sporocysts and rediae occur within snail. Cercariae are released.

5. Cercariae penetrate (2nd intermediate hosts) and encyst as metacercariae.

6. Definitive host is infected by ingesting 2nd intermediate

host, metacercariae excyst in stomach, and adults mature

in small intestine.

order plagiorchiformes
Order Plagiorchiformes
  • Family Troglotrematidae: these are oval thick flukes with a spiny tegument and dense vitellaria.
  • Parasites of lungs, intestine, nasal passages, cranial cavities, and various ectopic locations.
nanophyetus salmincola

Fish Eating

Mammal

(Birds)

Salmonid fish

Freshwater

Snail

Nanophyetus salmincola
nanophyetus salmincola25
Nanophyetus salmincola
  • Northwest N. America
  • Northeast Asia
  • Crypts of the small intestine
  • Human infections
    • 98% prevalence in Siberian villages
  • Pathology
nanophyetus salmincola26
Nanophyetus salmincola
  • Salmon poisoning
  • Highly pathogenic
  • Neorickettsia helminthoeca
    • Rickettsia
    • Intracellular bacterium
    • Typhus
  • Nanophyetus salmincola is a vector for Neorickettsia helminthoeca.
nanophyetus salmincola27
Nanophyetus salmincola
  • Disease
    • High Fever
    • Edema of face
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Death in 10 days to 2 weeks.
lung flukes
Lung Flukes
  • Paragonimus
  • bronchiolar lumen and peribronchial tissues
  • Antigenic
  • Become encapsulated
    • granuloma
paragonimiasis
Paragonimiasis
  • Paragonimus
  • 7 species in Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America
  • Paragonimus westermani
paragonimus westermani
Paragonimus westermani
  • 1st Int. Host
    • Freshwater snails
    • Streams
    • Rice paddies

Melanoides tuberculata

paragonimus westermani33
Paragonimus westermani
  • 2nd Int. Hosts:
    • Potamon
      • Rice Paddies
    • Eriocheir
      • Streams
      • Larvae develop in brackish water
paragonimus kellicotti
Paragonimus kellicotti
  • Crayfish serve as 2nd IH in North America.
  • Metacercariae are found in the heart.
paragonimus
Paragonimus
  • A number of birds and mammals are know to serve as PH!
  • Guinea pigs are known to serve as PARATENIC HOSTS for Paraganimus spp. in South America!