Evolution in volvocine algae
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Evolution in Volvocine Algae. Colonial. Unicellular. Common ancestor – not direct line. Unicellular -. Single cell. Colonial -. Different configurations. Isogamous -. Identical gametes. Eyespot -. Detect UV light. Flagella -. Propel the cell. Polar -. Anterior/posterior.

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Evolution in volvocine algae
Evolution in Volvocine Algae

Colonial

Unicellular

Common ancestor – not direct line

Unicellular -

Single cell

Colonial -

Different configurations

Isogamous -

Identical gametes

Eyespot -

Detect UV light

Flagella -

Propel the cell

Polar -

Anterior/posterior

Vegetative cells -

Cannot reproduce

Reproductive cells -

New colonies

Oogamous -

Egg & sperm


Volvocine line beginning
Volvocine Line Beginning

http://www2.mcdaniel.edu/Biology/botf99/algaeheadpages/lowealgaef/greens/studealgae/stvov/stvolvox.htm

Chlamydomonas

Most primitive

Single celled

Bi-flagellate for movement

Isogamous


Pandorina
Pandorina

Large eyespots on one end

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/bot311/Chlorophyta/PandorinaLg.jpg

New colony

Polar

Isogamous

Each cell


Eudorina
Eudorina

Smaller

Colonial

Polar

Vegetative & reproductive

First move toward reproductive specialization

Isogamous


Volvox colonial polar
Volvox – colonial & polar

Daughter colonies

1000’s vegetative

Few reproductive

Large nonmotile eggs

Small sperm

Oogamous

Communication


Chlamydomonas

Gonium

Eudorina

Volvox

http://nimravid.wordpress.com/2008/04/16/evolve-multicellularity-volvox/


Symbiosis
Symbiosis

2 different species live together

Relationship

Host - largest

Mutualism -

Both organisms benefit

Commensalism -

1 benefits, 2nd unaffected

Parasitism -

1 benefits, 2nd harmed

Co-evolve to stable relationship


Mutualism lichens
Mutualism - Lichens

Algae

Fungal hyphae

Fungus & alga


Body shape crustose
Body shape = Crustose

http://www.cs-music.com/features/photos/lichen-fence.html



Body shape foliose
Body shape = Foliose

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/pljan98f.htm



Body shape fruticose
Body shape = Fruticose

http://www.hiltonpond.org/ThisWeek010222.html


Mutualism termite protozoa
Mutualism – termite & protozoa

http://www.securitypest.com/images/TermiteAcrop.jpg


Trichonympha
Trichonympha

  • http://www.uccs.edu/~rmelamed/MicroFall2002/Chapter%2011/Animal-like.html



Commensalism barnacles
Commensalism - Barnacles

Home & transportation

  • http://www.learner.org/jnorth/images/graphics/u-z/gwhale_tail.jpg


Remora

http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngexplorer/0505/articles/gallery_1.html





Parasitism host is harmed
Parasitism – host is harmed

Modified

Parasite -

Needs nourishment

Needs transportation

Needs to reproduce

Complicated life cycle


Anopheles mosquito
Anopheles Mosquito

Secondary host

Malaria protozoa

Sexual reproduction

Transportation


Plasmodium a protozoa
Plasmodium a protozoa

Penetrates human liver cells – asexual spores


Infected red blood cells
Infected Red Blood Cells

Asexual spores reproduce until RBC ruptures

Male & female gametocytes

Mosquito = fuse to form zygote


Tapeworm eggs
Tapeworm eggs

Ingested by primary host

Larva




Primary host
Primary host

Small intestine

7 meters long


Scolex
Scolex

Suckers

hooks


Large muscular full of fertilized eggs
Large & Muscular – full of fertilized eggs


Blood fluke eggs
Blood Fluke Eggs

From feces


Eggs hatch into ciliated larvae
Eggs hatch into ciliated larvae

Infect secondary host - snail




Larvae escape snail into water
Larvae escape snail into water

Invade humans through skin


Adult blood flukes
Adult Blood Flukes

In blood vessels

Sexual reproduction

Eggs migrate


200 000 000 people infected
200,000,000 People Infected

1,000,000 death annually




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