The New Deal Liberalism: Relief, Recovery, & Reform
Hoover and the Economic Collapse • What specific programs/policies did Hoover and Congress employ to deal with the economic collapse?
Stormy Weather: The Century FDR: The Election of 1932
FDR: Liberal Policies • First 100 Days (March-June 1933) • Mandate: Shifting ‘Balance of Power’ • Congress – Democrats control both Houses • House – 313D – 117R (-101) / Senate 59D – 36R (-12) • Active Liberal Gov’t: Brain Trust • w/ broad “Executive Power” – Economic Warfare • FDR & ‘Common Man’ • Mass Media: Fireside Chats & Photo Ops • Must Restore American Confidence • The 3 R’s (Relief, Recovery, Reform)
Keynesian Economics • Gov’t becomes economic stimulator in recession • ‘Prime the Pump’ – (Multiplier Effect) • Expand money supply (off Gold Standard) • Inflation & debt
Hoover’s - RFC Emergency Banking Act (1933) Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) (1933) Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) (1933) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Public Works Administration (PWA) - NIRA Recovery: Priming Pump
National Industrial Recovery Act (1933) • Most important & Controversial Legislation • Democratization of Workplace (Cooperation) • Industrial Codes • Limit production to boost prices • Fair competition through price controls • Right to Unionize • Collective bargaining, maximum work week, minimum wage, child labor abolished • Public Works Association (PWA)
Relief & Reform: First New Deal • Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA) • Home Owners Loan Corporation • Public Utilities Holding Company • FDIC – Glass-Steagall Act • Confidence: Gov’t is on your side • Right attacks:COMMUNIST, Unconstitutional • Left attacks: Not enough
1934 Midterm Elections • Political shift? • Economic Recovery? • House of Reps - Dem. (322) Rep. (104) • Senate - Dem. (69) Rep. (27) • FDR Mandate? Back to the……….
2nd New Deal (1934/1935) • Securities and Exchange Commission(1934) • Works Progress Adm. (1935) • Social Securities Act (1935) • Public Utilities Holding Company (1935) • Revenue Act (1935)
Social Impact of the New Deal • Why did FDR have the support of diverse American (typically excluded) groups? • Women, African-Americans, Mexican-Americans, Native-Americans, Labor (Farmers & Urban) • Was FDR a civil rights president? Why or Why not? • How should we view/describe the New Deal?
Legacy of the New Deal • Increased Power of the Federal Gov’t • Gov’t = Offset Corporate Power • Gov’t – responsible to solve Economic problems & welfare of its citizens • Welfare, Job Creation, Agriculture & Industrial/Enterprise Regulation, Environmental controls • Deficit spending, Taxation, Role of Gov’t (liberties)? • “Imperial Presidency” – power of executive • Roosevelt Coalition (Dems) dominate national politics until Reagan’s presidency (1930’s - 1980’s) • Farmers, Unions/Working Class, A-A.s, liberals
FDR Inaugural Address • Broad Executive Power • Economic Warfare
Evidence • These are the facts, examples, or support. • These are the details that form the backbone or core of your body paragraphs. • They provide the proof for the mini-thesis. • They can be generalizations.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) • The Tennessee Valley Authority was a radical New Deal experiment as the federal government pumped money into regional planning, usually reserved for private industries.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) • The TVA produced hydroelectric power by building dams, it produced and sold fertilizer, reforested the area, and it developed recreational areas in order to build up the infrastructure and promote local economies. (Davis 207)
Specific Evidence • Your specific evidence builds upon the evidence sentence by providing greater detail or a concrete example. • These are often numbers, statistics, quotes, or details. • These are needed to support your generalizations and really prove your mini-thesis. • These will be your MLA cites
Was the New Deal Colorblind? • Though FDR expressed a paternalistic concern for blacks, he, along with many of his closest advisors, was either unconcerned about promoting civil rights or hesitant to stir up a hornets nest in the Democratic, white South. In Mississippi only 2% of the CCC were African-Americans in 1933, and this pattern was similar with other federal agencies such as the NRA and AAA which depended on local support and cooperation of local leaders, businesses and workers (Link 291).