The New Republican President Chapter 11 section 1
Thomas Jefferson 3rd POTUS • In 1801, Thomas Jefferson became the first President to take the oath of office in Washington, D.C. • First Republican President • Tried to keep the government small and simple.
Renaissance Type Man • Served as a President, Vice-President, Secretary of State, legislator, governor, and as the author and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. • Inventor – new type of clock, the swivel chair, the dumbwaiter elevator, and a new form of plow. • He was also a musician, a farmer, an architect, and spoke 5 languages.
3rd President 1801-1809 • Put Republican ideas about government to work. • Ended many customs of President Washington and Adams • Guests now shook hands with the President, instead of bowing before him. • Formal receptions were also replaced with informal dinners at a round table, so no person appeared superior to anyone else.
1803 Marburyvs Madison • The Supreme court gained a new, more powerful role in the Federal government. In the 1803 case of Marbury v. Madison, the court established its power of judicial review. • Judicial review-the power to decide whether or not an act of Congress is constitutional.
Marburyvs Madison WILLIAM MARBURY James Madison
1803 Marbury vs. Madison • Soon after taking office, Jefferson noticed that a stack for new judges had not been delivered. • Before Jefferson’s inauguration, President Adams appointed loyal Federalists to new judgeships. • Why? • Jefferson was outraged when he saw them and told his Secretary of State James Madison not to deliver them.
1803 Marbury vs. Madison • One man who did not receive his commission was William Marbury. • Marbury claimed that the Judiciary Act of 1789 gave the Supreme Court the power to force federal officials to perform their duties. • Marbury argued, the court could order Madison to give him his commission.
Outcome of Marburyvs Madison • In 1803, the outcome of the case of Marbury vs. Madison forever changed the relationship of the three branches of government. • The Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional because the Constitution did not grant such power to the Court. • Therefore the Supreme Court could not force Madison to give Marbury his commission.
Louisiana Purchase 1803 • In 1803, Jefferson doubled the size of the United States by buying Louisiana from France. • President Jefferson sent James Monroe to France. His mission was to persuade Napoleon to sell New Orleans to the United States. • Luckily France was on the brink of war with Great Britain. • Napoleon knew that he did not have a strong enough navy to protect French lands in North America.
Louisiana Purchase 1803 • Choices for Napoleon: British take the Louisiana Territory or he sells it and makes money to fight the British • On April 30, 1803, he signed a treaty with France in which the United States agreed to buy Louisiana from France for about $15 million dollars. (about 3 cents per acre) • $15 million in 1803 = about $300,000,000 today
Exploration of the Louisiana Purchase • Although the Louisiana Purchase did double the size of the United States, it added 200,000 Native American, French, and Spanish inhabitants. • Thomas Jefferson hired Meriwhether Lewis and William Clark to explore the Louisiana Purchase and find a route to the Pacific Ocean.
Lewis and Clark • Other information – native tribes they met (established trade with them),soil samples, terrain, and animals they encountered. • Lewis and Clark were joined by a guide named Toussaint Charbonneau and his 17 year old Shoshone Indian wife, Sacagawea. • Sacagawea had been kidnapped as a child and taken far from her mountain homeland. • She would serve as a guide and interpreter.
Lewis and Clark Meriwhether Lewis William Clark
Zebulon Pike • In 1806, Zebulon Pike began exploring a different part of Louisiana. • Pike and his party pushed west across the Kansas Plains along Osage and Arkansas rivers. • Upon reaching the Colorado Rockies, Pike caught a sight of the “Grand Peak”, now named “Pike’s Peak”. • The party got lost and wandered south into present day New Mexico. • Spanish soldiers arrested them as spies and took them deep into Mexico. They were held captive until the spring of 1807.