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Networks of Communication and Exchange, 300 BCE – 600 CE. I. The Silk Road. Origins and Operations Parthians (247 BCE) General Zhang Jian (128 BCE) New cities Goods exchanged from East – West B. The Sasanid Empire, 224 – 600 CE Artifacts, sedentary warrior elite Purpose of cities

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Presentation Transcript
i the silk road
I. The Silk Road
  • Origins and Operations
  • Parthians (247 BCE)
  • General Zhang Jian (128 BCE)
  • New cities
  • Goods exchanged from East – West

B. The Sasanid Empire, 224 – 600 CE

  • Artifacts, sedentary warrior elite
  • Purpose of cities
  • New crops in Mediterranean
  • State religion – Zoroastrianism (intolerance)
b the sasanid empire continued
431 CE – Nestorian Christians declared heretics by Byzantine Empire

Third c. – rise of Manichaeism

Competition for converts along Silk Road

C. The Impact of the Silk Road

Growing importance of trade

Nomads – dwellings

Competing religions

Military technology

Impact of stirrup

B. The Sasanid Empire Continued
slide4
What is the connection between Manichaeism and Nestorian Christians to the Silk Road? Why do you think these religions were considered a threat?
ii the indian ocean maritime system
II. The Indian Ocean Maritime System
  • South China Sea
  • East coast of India to islands of Southeast Asia
  • West coast of India to Persian Gulf and East coast of Africa
  • Dominant traders in each region – exceptions
slide6
Origins of Contact and Trade
  • Early/late records
  • Indonesian migration to Madagascar
  • Impact on African mainland – canoes and agriculture

B. Impact of Indian Ocean Trade

  • Goods from Africa and Middle East
  • Volume of trade
  • Western Indian Ocean ports – isolated, not primarily focused on trade
  • Eastern Indian Ocean ports – larger inland populations, trade VERY important
  • Role of women
slide7
Why were ports that were part of the West Indian Ocean trade routes less integrated in the surrounding landscape than East Indian Ocean ports?
iii routes across the sahara
III. Routes Across the Sahara
  • Trans – Saharan caravan routes
  • Cave paintings
  • Cattle, horses, chariots
  • CAMELS
  • North – South
  • Salt – forest products
  • Impact of Rome
iv sub saharan africa
A. Geography, geography, geography…

4,000 miles from Sahara to Cape of Good Hope

Palindrome effect

Tropical rainforest, deserts, savannah, Mediterranean climate

Rivers, rift valleys, cataracts

IV. Sub – Saharan Africa
culture technology and migrations
Culture, Technology, and Migrations
  • Great traditions vs. small traditions
  • Geographic isolation
  • Language, agriculture
  • Music, kinship, dance
  • Migration after Ice Age
  • Bananas
  • How did iron smelting reach sub – Saharan Africa?
  • Bantu Migration – origins, language
slide12
What impact did the physical geography of Africa have on the cultural development of people living in sub – Saharan Africa?
v the spread of ideas
Ideas and Material Evidence

Pig domestication – origins – prohibition

Coins – Anatolia – spread to Europe, North Africa, and India…China?

B. The Spread of Buddhism

Not tied to a single ethnic/kinship group

Impact of kings and Silk Road travelers

Faxian (Early 5th c.) – Central Asia, Sri Lanka, Java, China

Ashoka’s missionaries

Different lands – Mahayana or Theravada Buddhism

V. The Spread of Ideas
slide14
C. The Spread of Christianity

Spread in Asia and Africa – Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria…Armenia and Ethiopia

Armenia – strategic Silk Road location

Zoroastrianism

Alphabet

Constantinople – missionaries to Yemen and Ethiopia

4th c. CE – Aedisius and Frumentius in Ethiopia

Nubia

slide15
Why is it more difficult to trace the spread of Buddhism or Christianity than the spread of coin technology?
  • What factors enabled the spread of Buddhism and Christianity in Asia and Africa?