ACS 1453 -Transmission Media - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ACS 1453 -Transmission Media

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  1. ACS 1453 -Transmission Media • Physical pathways between network members • Computers send bits to each other (+ / -) • Different media chosen to make up pathways • Cables: twisted pair, coaxial, fibre optic • Wireless: infrared line of sight, high frequency radio, microwave

  2. Networking Fundamentals – Transmission Media (continued) Twisted Pair (TP) Two or more pairs of insulated copper wires twisted together and may be shielded (STP) or unshielded (UTP). It is the lowest capacity of the cable options Coaxial (COAX) Contains a solid inner copper conductor surrounded by insulation and outer braided copper or foil shield. It is higher capacity than twisted pair Fiber-Optic Made of light-conducting glass or plastic core, surrounded by more glass, called cladding, and a tough outer sheath. It is high capacity and used in high speed backbones 3

  3. Wireless media • Infrared LOS: like TV remote control • High-frequency radio: needs antenna towers; used in pagers, cellular phones, police / taxi radio in cars • Microwave: long distances • Terrestrial: antennas every e.g., 30 miles • Satellite: signals from antennas on Earth to Satellites in space and back down

  4. Networking Fundamentals – Media (Microwave) Satellite Microwave A line-of-site technology that uses relay stations to transfer signals between antennae located on earth and a satellite orbiting the earth. It can be used to accessvery remote locations and, like a terrestrial microwave, attenuation, EMI and eavesdropping are also problems 5

  5. Networking Fundamentals – Media (Microwave) Microwave A high frequency radio signal that is sent through the air using either terrestrial (earth-based) or satellite systems Terrestrial Microwave A line-of-sitetechnology (unobstructed) used to cross inaccessible terrain or to connect buildings where cable installation would be expensive. Attenuation is low over short distance but higher over longer distances, and high winds, heavy rain, EMI and eavesdropping are also problems 6

  6. The Internet • The largest, “network of networks” • This will be the next topic

  7. ** THE INTERNET ** • Large, worldwide collection of networks that use a common protocol to communicate with each other • A network of networks

  8. Packet Switching • Internet uses packet switching to enable users to transmit across it concurrently • What is to be sent down the network is ‘sliced up’ into packets • Each packet has header with source and destination address • Each computer attached to a network has a unique network address

  9. How the Internet Works – Connecting to the Internet • Modem (stands for Modulate/Demodulate) • A modem converts signals back and forth from digital to analog for transmission and receipt between computers • A computer requires a modem to get access to the Internet • Internet Service Provider (ISP) • These companies provides access to the Internet for a fee (i.e. MTS, Shaw) • A computer is connected to an ISP through a modem to allow Internet access • Network Access Points (NAPs) • NAP’s connect ISPs together • They serve as Internet access points for the ISPs and serve as exchange points for Internet traffic • Internet Backbone • Collection of main network connections and telecommunications lines that make up the Internet 10

  10. TCP / IP • This is the Internet transmission protocol • Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol • TCP – manages transfer of packets (eg. Orders [sorts] incoming packets) • IP – defines how a packet must be formed including form of addresses • Each computer on Internet has IP address

  11. Connecting Independent Networks • Routers interconnect networks • LANs and WANs connect to routers that connect to Internet sites • Can use Internet Service Provider (ISP) • MTS, Shaw • ISP connects to Network Access Point • Exchange points for Internet traffic (railway st) • Internet backbone: central telecomm path

  12. How the Internet Works – TCP/IP & Routers TCP/IP Approach • TCP – Transmission Control Protocol • Breaks information into small chucks called data packets • Manages the transfer of the packets from computer to computer • Reassembles data packets into a message at the destination • IP – Internet Protocol • Controls how data packets are formed • Addresses each packet with the source and destination address • A data packet conforming to the IP spec is called an IP datagram • Routers • Connect one network to another • Identify each device on a network as unique using IP protocol • Serve as the “Traffic Cop” directing packets to their destination 13

  13. Internet Transmission Media • Plain Old Telephone (POTS) – slow • DSL: Digital Subscriber Line • Uses telephone line in a special way to fit more data – no standard modem needed • TV cable: needs cable modems; faster • T1, T3 lines: dedicated digital transmission lines; over long distances • Satellite connections

  14. How the Internet Works – Sending a Message from Computer A to D 2 (Router) Reads IP Address of packet, routes message to Network 2 and Computer D 3 (Computer D) TCP - Checks for missing packets, reassembles message, discards duplicate packets 1 (Computer A) TCP - Breaks message into data packets IP - Adds address of destination Computer D 15

  15. Accessing the Internet • Internet Service provider (ISP) • MTS, Shaw • Or connect the server of your LAN to the Internet

  16. Popular Uses of Internet • Telnet – use remote CPU • File Transfer Protocol (FTP): download file from remote computer • Internet telephone calls • E-mail • Chat messengers • World Wide Web

  17. World Wide Web • Web servers dish out web pages which are read and displayed by web browsers • Web page – consists of text, graphics, and hyperlinks that lead to another page; this is hypertext • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the language to define web pages p. 181 • Browsers read HTML and render a page

  18. World Wide Web • Hypertext • A Web page stored on a Web server • Contains information and links to other related information (hyperlinks) • HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) • A standard method used to specify the format of Web pages • Uses codes/tags which stipulate how the content should appear to the user • Web Browser • A software program used to locate and display Web pages • Includes text, graphics, and multimedia content Web Browser 19

  19. A Website • Collection of interlinked web pages created by the same author(s) for common purpose • Respond to requests over the Internet from browsers according to the hypertext transfer protocol (http) • URL (Uniform Resource Locator) • Each site has a URL address • http://www.uwinnipeg,ca

  20. Web addresses • Website: http://www.xxx.yy • Page on that site:http://www.xxx.yy/zz • Domain name: xxx.yy • Prefix: xxx e.g. uwinnipeg • Suffix: yy e.g. .com – business • .org – nonprofit organization • .ca - Canada

  21. ., Internet E-MAIL address: john@uwinnipeg.ca e-mail address has @ symbol user name @ domain name Domain names (general areas): .com commercial organization .edu educational organization .gov government organization .ca Canada .us U.S. .hk Hong Kong

  22. IP Addresses • Each domain name • uwinnipeg.ca • is associated with an IP Address • 32-bit numeric address • written as 4 numbers separated by periods • Domain name is translated to IP Address by a special server on the Internet • eg. 1.160.10.240 World Wide Web

  23. Additional details regarding the Web: Types of web sites: 1. Static: collection of static documents created in HTML and tied together with links 2. Static with forms: 90% is pure document delivery, but also has fill-in forms to collect information from the user

  24. 3. Dynamic Data Access: via a Web page, users can search a catalogue or perform queries on the contents of a database 4. Web-based software applications: facilitate business processes beyond providing information; have a business information system on a Web-site, e.g., inventory tracking, sales force automation

  25. World Wide Web • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • A protocol used to process user requests for displaying Web pages from a Web server • Web Servers • A special computer that is specifically designed to store and “serve up” Web pages • This machine contains special hardware and software to perform its many specialized functions 26

  26. Overview of a Web Session: 1. User, with browser software, requests a document from a remote Web server on the Internet - enters desired address as Uniform Resource Locator (URL) e.g., http://www.irwin.com - URL specifies where something is, not what it is 2. Actual address is determined from a domain name server (computer) on the Internet *

  27. 3. Once the machine has been located, a request can be sent to the server (discussion between the Web browser and the Web server is handled by HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol - defines how a client must ask for data (pages) from the server and how the server responds when it returns what was asked for) {HTTP does not specify how the data is transferred, that is up to TCP/IP, at a lower level} )

  28. 4. Server attempts to process request (is it valid?) - it may send back HTML 'data' (a page) - server machines often run the Unix or Windows NT OR 2008 operating systems - they send data from disk onto the network; it uses Web Server software, such as Apache

  29. 5. The browser, on the client, reads what has been sent to it, identifies it as an HTML document, and places the page in the browser window - information moves from the network or modem to the client system - once in the client computer, information goes along a bus to the hard disk or into main memory (browser might temporarily put info onto disk) - it is then processed by the browser software only) 9

  30. Search Engine • Locates on the Web, topics requested • Returns list of links to web pages • Examples; Google, Yahoo, Alta Vista

  31. Intranets and Extranets • Intranet uses internet technology but is limited to one organization • Extranet is a company Intranet that is also connected to several specific external organizations (e.g. retailer and its supplier)

  32. E-Mail • Common and useful form of Internet communication • Web-based systems (Hotmail) • Dedicated e-mail software (Outlook) • On which computer is your e-mail stored? • Now, go to the Section of the book on Outlook