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Chapter Overview. IP IPX NetBEUI AppleTalk. Network Layer Protocols. Responsible for end-to-end communications on an internetwork Contrast with data-link layer protocols, which provide communications on the same local area network (LAN). IP Encapsulation. IP Functions. Encapsulation

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chapter overview
Chapter Overview
  • IP
  • IPX
  • NetBEUI
  • AppleTalk
network layer protocols
Network Layer Protocols
  • Responsible for end-to-end communications on an internetwork
  • Contrast with data-link layer protocols, which provide communications on the same local area network (LAN)
ip functions
IP Functions
  • Encapsulation
  • Addressing
  • Routing
  • Fragmentation
  • Protocol identification
ip addresses
IP Addresses
  • Internet Protocol (IP) is the only network layer protocol with its own addressing system.
  • IP addresses are 32 bits long.
  • IP addresses have two parts: a network identifier and a host identifier.
  • IP addresses are assigned to network interface adapters, not to computers.
  • The Source IP Address field in the IP header always identifies the computer that generated the packet.
  • The Destination IP Address field in the IP header always identifies the packet’s final destination.
fragmentation
Fragmentation
  • Routers connect networks that support different-sized packets.
  • The largest packet size supported by a network is called its maximum transmission unit (MTU).
  • When a packet is too large to be forwarded to a particular network, the router splits it into fragments.
  • Each fragment is encapsulated with a header and is transmitted as a separate packet.
  • Fragments are not reassembled until they reach their final destination.
  • Fragments can themselves be fragmented.
the ipx standard
The IPX Standard
  • Developed by Novell for use with NetWare
  • Proprietary; never published as a public standard
  • Reverse engineered by Microsoft to create NWLink
ipx functions
IPX Functions
  • Routing
  • Addressing
  • Protocol identification
ipx addressing
IPX Addressing
  • Internet Packet Exchange (IPX) uses
    • Separate node and network addresses
    • Network interface adapter hardware addresses for node addresses
  • Network addresses
    • Are assigned by administrators
    • Do not need to be registered
netbeui characteristics
NetBEUI Characteristics
  • Original Microsoft Windows default networking protocol
  • Designed for small local area networks (LANs)
  • Does not support Internet communications
  • Does not need configuration
  • Can be used to troubleshoot Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) configuration protocols
netbios names
NetBIOS Names
  • Assigned to computers during Windows installation
  • Sixteen characters long; the sixteenth character is a resource identifier
  • Can identify computers, domain controllers, users, groups, and other resources
  • Have no network identifier (which is why NetBEUI is nonroutable)
protocols using nbf
Protocols Using NBF
  • Name Management Protocol (NMP)
  • Session Management Protocol (SMP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  • Diagnostic and Monitoring Protocol (DMP)
appletalk data link layer options
AppleTalk Data-Link Layer Options
  • LocalTalk
  • EtherTalk
  • Fast EtherTalk
  • TokenTalk
  • FDDITalk
datagram delivery protocol
Datagram Delivery Protocol
  • AppleTalk’s network layer protocol
  • Provides packet addressing, routing, and protocol identification
  • Has short-format and long-format packet headers
appletalk addressing
AppleTalk Addressing
  • AppleTalk computers have a unique 8-bit node ID that is self-assigned.
  • AppleTalk networks can have no more than 254 nodes.
  • AppleTalk uses 16-bit network numbers for routing.
  • Computers obtain network numbers using the Zone Information Protocol (ZIP).
  • Computer processes are identified by 8-bit socket numbers.
appletalk addressing cont
AppleTalk Addressing (Cont.)
  • Network numbers, node IDs, and socket numbers are expressed as three decimal numbers, separated by periods.
  • AppleTalk computers resolve node IDs into hardware addresses, using the AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP).
  • AppleTalk computers also have friendly names and groups of computers called zones.
chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • Network layer protocols are responsible for end-to-end communications across the network.
  • IP is a connectionless protocol that encapsulates transport layer data into datagrams.
  • IPX is a proprietary standard that performs routing, addressing, and protocol identification.
  • NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) is used by small Windows networks for LAN networking.
  • AppleTalk provides basic networking to small networks.