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Lecture 2: Introduction to Cloud Computing. Xiaowei Yang (Duke University). Roadmap. What is Cloud Computing? Why now, not then? Classes of Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Economics: why does it make sense? Obstacles and (research) opportunities. What is cloud computing.

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lecture 2 introduction to cloud computing

Lecture 2: Introduction to Cloud Computing

Xiaowei Yang (Duke University)

roadmap
Roadmap
  • What is Cloud Computing?
  • Why now, not then?
  • Classes of Cloud Computing
  • Cloud Computing Economics: why does it make sense?
  • Obstacles and (research) opportunities
what is cloud computing
What is cloud computing
  • Applications run on clouds (Software as a Service)
  • Hardware and system software in the datacenters that provide the services
    • An old concept: computing as a utility
      • No need to purchase your hardware
      • Pay-as-you-go
cloud computing saas utilitycomputing privateclouds
Cloud Computing = SaaS + UtilityComputing – PrivateClouds
  • Private
    • A business’s internal datacenters
    • No public access
    • Name a few companies that own private clouds
  • Public
    • Pay-as-you-go public services
    • Name a few public cloud providers
is cloud computing win win
Is Cloud Computing Win-Win?
  • SaaS advantages to providers
    • Simple management and maintanence
    • Centralized control over versioning
  • SaaS Advantages to users
    • Always on service
    • Easy data sharing and collaboration
    • Robust data storage
    • Simple management
slide7

Advantages of utility computing to users

    • On demand scaling (elasticity)
    • No up-front commitment
    • Pay-as-you-go reduces provisioning risk
examples
Examples
  • When Animotomade its service available via Facebook, it experienced a demand surge that resulted in growing from 50 servers to 3500 servers in three days. … After the peak subsided, traffic fell to a level that was well below the peak.
    • With traditional computing  buy servers  idle servers
    • With cloud computing  pay during peaks  release afterwards
incentives for cloud providers
Incentives for cloud providers
  • Making money
    • Wholesale (10,000s) at a larger scale is 5-7 times cheaper than retail at a medium size (100s - 1000s)
    • Resource multiplexing
  • Leveraging existing investment
    • Companies may already build private clouds for other businesses
  • Defend a franchise
    • Migrating existing customers to a cloud
slide10

Attacking an incumbent

    • Google vs MS
  • Leveraging customer relationships
    • E.g. IBM
    • Preserving relationships by offering a branded cloud computing service
  • Becoming a platform
    • More customers  more $$
why now
Why now?
  • Two enablers:
    • New business model: pay-as-you-go with no contract
      • Intel Computing Service in 2000-2001 required a contract and longer-term use and failed
      • Customers do not like commitment
    • New applications
      • Mobile + cloud
      • Parallel batch processing: tons of data today
      • Analytics
      • Compute-intensive desktop applications
classes of utility computing
Classes of Utility Computing
  • Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
    • Thin API, close to bare metal
    • Virtual machines with customized guest OSes
    • Applications run on virtual machines using OS APIs
    • E.g. Amazon EC2
  • Platform as a service (PaaS)
    • Sandbox environment with specific platform APIs
    • E.g. Google AppEngine
  • A mixture of both
    • Microsoft Azure
economic benefits
Economic benefits
  • Elasticity
    • Peak demand: 500 servers
    • Average demand: 300 servers
    • Q: when does it make sense to use a cloud?
reducing underprovisioning risk
Reducing underprovisioning risk
  • Poor performance turns customers away
real world examples
Real world examples
  • Target uses AWS
  • Other retailers use it during holiday seasons
rule of thumb
Rule of Thumb
  • UserHourscloud x (revenue – Costcloud) >= UserHoursdatacenter * (revenue – Costdatacenter/Utilization)
  • Why Costdatacenter/Utilization?
  • Do UserHourscloud == UserHoursdatacenter
when not to use a cloud
When not to use a cloud?
  • Utilization = 100%
  • Shipping large amount of data
obstacles and opportunities
Obstacles and Opportunities
  • Availability
    • Single point of failure
      • Mega-Cloud to improve reliability
      • Elasticity to defend against DoS attacks
        • Ex. 500,000 bots at $0.03 per bot, 1GB/s attack traffic
        • Victim: $360 per hour in bandwidth and $100 of computation, (500 bots per instance)
        • Attack must last long (>32 hours)
        • Make bots detectable
obstacles and opportunities1
Obstacles and Opportunities
  • Data Lock-in
    • Not a pure technical problem
    • Marketing strategy
    •  Standardarization
  • Data confidentiality and auditability
    • Technical challenge
    • Encryption would help
obstacles and opportunities2
Obstacles and Opportunities
  • Data transfer bottlenecks
    • Need creative solutions
      • FedEx
      • Keep data local to a cloud
      • Cheap long haul bandwidth by reducing high-end router cost
        • 2/3 of bandwidth cost is from routers
obstacles and opportunities3
Obstacles and Opportunities
  • Performance variation caused by I/O sharing
    • More research
o bstacles and opportunities
Obstacles and opportunities
  • Scalable storage
    • Research to build scalable storage systems
  • Bugs
    • Debuggers, tracers
  • Scaling quickly
    • Research
  • Reputation fate sharing
    • Spammers used EC2
    • All services sharing their IP addresses got blacklisted
    • Research
obstacles and opportunities4
Obstacles and opportunities
  • Software licensing
    • Not pure technical challenges
      • Commercial software’s licensing model not good for utility computing
        • One time purchase vs pay-as-you-go
    • Opportunities
      • New licensing models
      • New sales models
      • Open source software!
summary
Summary
  • What is cloud computing
    • SaaS + Utility Computing – Private Cloud
  • Enablers
    • Business models
    • New applications
  • Advantages
  • Economic benefits
  • Challenges and opportunities
    • Technical
    • Non-technical