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Federal Cloud Computing Training. August 12, 2009. Agenda. Introduction Cloud Computing Definition Technical Overview Cost and Energy Benefits Federal Cloud Computing PMO Update Federal Cloud Computing Governance. Introduction.

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Agenda l.jpg


Cloud Computing Definition

Technical Overview

Cost and Energy Benefits

Federal Cloud Computing PMO Update

Federal Cloud Computing Governance

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Administration Priorities for Infrastructure Modernization and Cloud Computing

The Federal technology environment requires a fundamental reexamination of investments in technology infrastructure.”

“The Infrastructure Modernization Program will be taking on new challenges and responsibilities. Pilot projects will be implemented to offer an opportunity to utilize more fully and broadly departmental and agency architectures to identify enterprise -wide common services and solutions with a new emphasis on could computing. “

“The Federal Government will transform its Information Technology Infrastructure by virtualizing data centers, consolidating data centers and operations, and ultimately adopting a cloud-computing business model.”

FY2010 Federal Budget

Analytical Perspectives

Cross Cutting Programs


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The Fierce Urgency of Now and Cloud Computing

  • Federal government is fundamentally changing the way it operates.

  • We are confronted with system-wide challenges ranging from the economy, the environment, to health care, etc.

  • Our public infrastructure is not performing adequately and there are operational and public safety risks.

  • Such challenges have forced the Federal government to take a front and center role in working across the public, private, and academic sectors to solve massively complex and cross-disciplinary, interdependent problems.

  • From an operational perspective, all systems operate today via human interactions with technology and with IT infrastructure as the foundational grid from which those interactions and transactions are enabled.

  • Increasingly, more demands will be made of Federal government, for handling, managing, and overseeing transactions (e.g. Recovery.gov, Ethics.gov, Data.gov, etc.).

  • As a steward and provider of services to citizens, what we provision requires 21st century infrastructure, know-how, and innovation.


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We Need to Think Differently and Cloud Computing

  • Real drivers for change in IT and IT infrastructure are not solely the need for higher performance or cost savings but the macro-level system-wide challenges that technology can help solve.

  • In a tight economy though, the real issue or challenge in IT is between the availability of money, perceived value, and the needs of IT infrastructure (especially data centers).

  • Problem is that as the demand for and the needs for modern IT infrastructure grow, the “discretionary cash” may not be there.

  • This pushes CFOs, CAOs, CIOs, CTOs, CHCOS to think differently about IT infrastructure investments and ask the fundamental questions of who, what, where, when , and how?

  • It forces us to think less about equipment purchases and more about services.

  • It pushes us to think more creatively about addressing these complex problems holistically with our community of CFOs, CAOs, CIOs, CTOs, CHCOs. How can we change the existing infrastructure in place?

  • We need to rally around the problem and solve the problem together.

  • We need to move from the status-quo and deliver required capabilities which will prime the pump for the transactions and services required by the people, businesses, and industries of the nation.


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Cloud Computing Definition and Cloud Computing


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Forces Driving Cloud Computing and Cloud Computing

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What is Cloud Computing and Cloud ComputingThe NIST Definition

Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics, three delivery models, and four deployment models”.


Definition of Cloud Computing, Draft version 14


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What is Cloud Computing and Cloud ComputingThe NIST Definition (continued)

  • Deployment Models

    • Private Cloud

    • Community Cloud

    • Public Cloud

    • Hybrid Cloud

  • Delivery Models

    • Software as a Service (SaaS)

    • Platform as a Service (PaaS)

    • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

  • Five Characteristics:

    • On Demand Service

    • Ubiquitous Network Access

    • Location Independent Resource Pooling

    • Rapid Elasticity

    • Measured Service

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    What is Cloud Computing? and Cloud ComputingThree Main Types of Services

    • Software as a Service (SaaS): Software deployment model whereby a provider licenses an application to customers for use as a service on demand

    • Platform as a service (PaaS): Optimized IT and developer tools offered through Platform as a Service (PaaS) for Database and Testing Environments

    • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): On-demand, highly scalable Computing, Storage and Hosting Services

    • SaaS Examples:

      • Gov-Apps, Internet Services

      • Blogging/Surveys/Twitter, Social Networking

      • Information/Knowledge Sharing (Wiki)

      • Communication (e-mail), Collaboration (e-meeting)

      • Productivity Tools (office)

      • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

    • PaaS Examples:

      • Application Development, Data, Workflow, etc.

      • Security Services (Single Sign-On, Authentication, etc.)

      • Database Management

      • Directory Services

    • IaaS Examples:

      • Mainframes, Servers, Storage

      • IT Facilities/Hosting Services

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    The Different Types of Cloud Services Are Geared For Different Purposes




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    PRIVATE CLOUD Different Purposes

    Operated solely for an organization.

    Deployment Model Overview


    Shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns


    Composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability


    Made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services.

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    Selecting the Right Deployment Model Different Purposes

    Public / Outsourced


    Cloud Sourcing Models


    Private Cloud Outsourced:

    Publically available Cloud Computing services offered through commercial sources that are dedicated and separate from the Public both physically and logically and must to remain within the U.S. borders to support heighted data security and privacy requirements. Access to these services are provided through a dedicated Government Intranet and is not accessible from the Public Internet.

    Private Government Cloud :

    The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise.










    Trust (Security and Data Privacy)

    Community Cloud: The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise.

    Hybrid Cloud: The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting).

    Public Cloud:

    The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services.








    Public Internet


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    Sample Services Per Deployment Model Different Purposes


    Outsourced Private Cloud

    Internal Private Cloud


    Mission Applications

    Citizen Engagement

    (e.g. Virtual Town Hall)

    Business Services Applications

    Application Development &Testing

    Complexity & Cost

    Office Automation and Productivity Tools

    Data Dissemination

    (e.g. Data.gov)

    Internal Agency Web Portals

    Communications (Wikis, Blogs, Web Sites)

    Public Cloud

    Public-Private Cloud




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    Key Benefits Different Purposes

    • Significant Cost Reduction - Computing available at a fraction of the cost, eliminate upfront capital expenditures and dramatically reduce administrative burden on IT resources

    • Increased Flexibility - on-demand computing across technologies, business solutions and large ecosystems of providers, reducing time to implement new solutions from months to days

    • Elastic Scalability - scale up or down instantaneously based on actual consumption and pay for only what is used

    • Rich Business Tools - Unlock tools and capabilities offered within the industry that significantly increase time to market and offer rich functionality

    • Tap Free Market Innovation - expose Government Data and Applications to enable a 3rd Party open-source development community

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    Key Indicators for Cloud Computing Value Different Purposes

    Consider the benefits of Cloud Computing in a proposal when you see:

    Software or hardware migrations and upgrades

    (Email Migration)

    Projects that need to be deployed rapidly

    (Wikis, Blogs)

    Large capital infrastructure costs and low data sensitivity

    (Data Centers)

    Projects that need to scale massively up or down with demand

    (Tax season)

    Projects that require a great deal of Government IT infrastructure management

    New development for public or low data sensitivity projects

    (Web Presence)


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    Grab Bag of Cloud Related Terms Different Purposesmay indicate a cloud solution


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    Technical Overview Different Purposes

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    Deploying Cloud Services Different PurposesGovernment Considerations

    Government Considerations


    Cloud Delivery Models

    Interoperability & Portability

    • Software as a Service (SaaS)

      • Wikis, Blogs

      • CRM, Case Management, etc.

      • Office Productivity



    Data Privacy Protection

    Compliance with FISMA

    (Federal Information Security

    Management Act)

    Public Cloud

    Private Cloud

    Hybrid Cloud

    Community Cloud

    Vendor Lock-in

    Integrating Multiple Clouds and Systems

    Moving Data & Apps In and Out of Clouds

    • Platform as a Service (PaaS)

      • Databases

      • Application Development & Testing Tools

      • Virtual Environments

    Cloud Services

    • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

      • Virtual Machines

      • Storage

      • Application hosting

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    Government Cloud Framework Different Purposes

    Customer / Account Mgmt

    User Tools

    User Profile Mgmt

    Software as a Service (SaaS) / Applications

    Application Integration

    User/ Admin Portal

    Reporting & Analytics

    Citizen Engagement

    Gov Productivity

    Gov Enterprise Apps

    Wikis / Blogs

    Email / IM

    Business Svcs Apps

    Order Mgmt

    Social Networking

    Virtual Desktop

    Core Mission Apps


    Analytic Tools

    Agency Website Hosting

    Office Automation

    Legacy Apps (Mainframes)

    Trouble Mgmt

    Data Mgmt

    Workflow Engine

    Platform as a

    Service (PaaS)


    Cloud Services


    Testing Tools

    Developer Tools


    Billing / Invoice Tracking

    Knowledge Mgmt


    Directory Services

    Mobile Device Integration

    Product Catalog

    Infrastructure as a

    Service (IaaS)

    Data Migration Tools


    Virtual Machines

    Web Servers

    Server Hosting



    Service Mgmt & Provisioning

    Service Provisioning

    SLA Mgmt

    Inventory Mgmt



    Utilization Monitoring

    App Perf Monitoring

    DR / Backup

    Operations Mgmt

    Security & Data Privacy

    Core Foundational Capabilities

    Authentication & Authorization

    Auditing & Accounting

    Data/Network Security

    Data Privacy

    Certification & Compliance

    Data Center


    Hosting Centers

    Routers / Firewalls


    Internet Access

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    Technical Evolutionary Path Different Purposes

    • Complex Infrastructure Sprawl

    • IT Asset and Data Center Growth

    • Outdated Legacy System Tools

    • Inconsistent Processes

    • Soaring IT & Energy Costs

    • PhysicalConsolidation

    • Consolidate IT Assets and Data Centers

    • Standardize and Centralize Management

    • Streamline Processes, incorporating best practices (i.e. ITIL)

    • Energy Savings – Phase out inefficient hardware

    • Virtualization

    • Virtualize infrastructure, resulting in increased system utilization

    • Unify virtual & physical management

    • Promote resource sharing across the organization

    • Energy Savings – maximize effective usage.

    • Cloud

    • Service Oriented Architecture

    • On-demand provisioning of IT resources; Elastic scaling up and down

    • Dynamic Service Management

    • Energy Savings via automated workload distribution

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    Market Overview Different Purposes

    • SaaS Providers

      • Run on top of underlying cloud infrastructure platforms

      • CRM, ERP, VoIP, BI, supply chain

    • PaaS Providers

      • ERP,DB,XML files, flat files,web services, on-demand apps, SaaS hoster, API’s,

      • load balancing, DNS configuration, storage

    • IaaS Providers

      • Proxy for buying servers, software, data center space or network equipment

      • Pay for memory, bandwidth, storage consumed

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    What will ultimately be delivered to users? Email, messaging apps, productivity tools = Software as a Service (SaaS)

    • Use cloud-based applications to enable improved productivity, cost reduction, and ubiquity of services

    • Example: web-based email solutions, allowing functionality such as web folders

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    Cost and Energy Benefits apps, productivity tools


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    Strategic Plan apps, productivity tools

    Cloud Computing Planning:Selecting Services

    Defines Organizational Goals and Mission Objectives

    Enterprise Architecture

    • Defines results-driven plan to achieve the Strategic Plan

    • EA should be services oriented – focusing on service reuse and information sharing

    • Should be FEA compliant to enable cross-agency analysis.



    Service Component




    Performance Architecture


    Architecture Management

    Governance Bodies

    Investment Management

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    IT Project Evaluation Criteria and apps, productivity toolsCloud Computing Offers a Better Option

    IT Evaluation Criteria

    Cloud Computing Offers a Better Option

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    On-Premise Development Costs apps, productivity tools

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    Lower Operational Costs apps, productivity tools

    Cloud Computing

    On Premise Development

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    Energy Savings Example apps, productivity tools

    • Current Data Center Statistics

      • The Government possesses data centers housing over 150,000 servers

      • Data centers used 61 billion kWh of electricity in 2006, representing 1.5% of all U.S. electricity consumption and double the amount consumed in 2000

      • Based on current trends, energy consumed by data centers will continue to grow by 12% per year

      • The average utilization rate for servers ranges from 5% to 15%.

      • Many agencies are paying the energy costs to run data centers at 100% capacity.

    • Potential Savings

      • An EPA report to Congress estimated that if state-of-the-art technology were adopted then energy efficiency could be improved by as much as 70%.

      • Saving a modest 10%of total energy use would amount to energy savings of 10.7 billion kilowatt-hours per year -- an amount equivalent to the electricity consumed by one million US households and valued at about $740 million.

        State of the Art Technology = Virtualized Storage Services obtained through Cloud Computing

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    Federal Cloud Computing PMO Update apps, productivity tools

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    Phased Approach to Implementing Cloud Services apps, productivity tools

    Phase 1

    Phase 2

    Phase 3

    Target Apps

    Light-weight collaboration & productivity tools and basic infrastructure / platform

    Rich productivity tools, enhanced platform capabilities

    Enterprise Applications in the cloud and integration services



    Nov/Dec 2009

    2Q 2010

    4Q 2010

    Cloud Delivery


    Commercially Available Public Clouds

    Public and Outsourced Private Clouds

    Private and Hybrid Clouds



    Advantage, BPA

    Smart-Buy, BPA, Directed RFP

    Smart-Buy, BPA, Directed RFP


    Low and Medium Impact

    FISMA Security

    Low , Medium an d High Impact FISMA Security

    Low-Impact FISMA Security

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    Phased Approach to Deploying Cloud Services apps, productivity tools

    Phase 1

    Phase 2

    Phase 3

    (Low Security, commercially available applications / services for Public Cloud models )

    (Enhanced Security Options, Some Customized services for the Government and support for Public, Private and Hybrid Models)

    (High Security Options, Interoperability standards and Support for Hybrid and Community Models)

    Gov Productivity –

    Office Automation

    Gov Enterprise Apps

    Software as a Service

    Commercial SaaS

    Products via Storefront

    Gov Productivity - Email

    Citizen Engagement – Participatory Legislation

    Citizen Engagement - Wikis, Blogs &Town-Halls

    Data as a Service

    Directory as a Services

    Platform as a Service

    Content Mgmt Services

    Database as a Service

    App Development & Test Environments and Tools

    Storage as a Service

    Infrastructure as a Service

    Web Hosting Services


    Computation (CPU)


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    IaaS RFQ apps, productivity tools

    RFQ IaaS Services

    • RFQ Released for IaaS on July 31st

    • Focus Low-Impact Security

    • Requirements Based on NIST Definition for Cloud


    Virtual Machines

    Server Hosting

    • Online Web Based Storage

    • Store Files & Data Objects

    • Online VMs / Computing

    • Multiple CPU & OS Types

    • Online Server Hosting

    • DNS and CDN Capabilities

    On-demand Self Service

    Online, self service provisioning capabilities for services

    Ubiquitous Network Access

    Accessible via the Internet with a sufficiently robust architecture

    Location Independent Resource Pooling

    Massively scalable services, independent of location of resources

    NIST Definition for Cloud Services

    Rapid Elasticity

    Scale up or down dynamically based on consumption and/or request

    Measured Service

    Utilization and consumption GUI dashboard and electronic interfaces

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    Cloud Storefront apps, productivity tools

    Simplify the customer experience – web application “storefront”

    • Agencies identify their infrastructure and web application requirements using a menu-type screen

    • Payment is by credit card or requisition

    • Delivery of a secure environment supported by the selected applications

    • Cloud Storefront:

    • Web based user interface for acquiring Cloud Services

    • Front-end user interface based on simple commercial Cloud models

    • Provides access to service agreements negotiated by GSA for free Social Media

    • One-stop shop site for agencies to request services, make selection from several vendor options, resulting in auto-provisioned fully functional services

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    Additional PMO Activities apps, productivity tools

    Refining the Federal Cloud Computing Concept of Operations and Transition Strategy Plan

    Market Research

    Agency Cloud Computing Initiative Research/ Knowledge Sharing

    Development of a Federal-wide C&A Process

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    Federal Cloud Computing Governance apps, productivity tools

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    Current IT Planning apps, productivity tools

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    Cloud Computing Deployment is Possible Only Through Effective Planning

    • Driven By:

      • Strategic Goals

      • Mission Objectives

      • Business Need

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    Putting Effective IT Planning into Practice Effective Planning

    IT Operations


    Do not use Enterprise Architecture as a compliance or reporting exercise. Use it as a management tool to achieve true business transformation.

    Build a bridge between EA and IT Operations, fostering continuous collaboration.

    Use EA analysis to drive the Capital Planning process by making specific investment recommendations that will result in cost savings and performance improvements.

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    Federal Cloud Computing Governance Structure Effective Planning

    CIO Council

    • Strategic Objective Definition

    • Overall Guidance

    • Adjudication

    PMO (GSA)

    Cloud Computing Executive Steering Committee (ESC)

    • Day to Day Management of the Federal Cloud Computing Initiative

    • Development of required deliverables

    • Provide Technical Guidance and Subject Matter Expertise

    • Strategic Direction

    • Priority Setting

    • Issue Resolution

    • Approval

    Cloud Computing Advisory Council (AC)

    • Provide Collaborate Federal Agency Input and Feedback for Cloud Computing Initiatives/Deliverables

    • Support the PMO and Cloud Copmuting Subcommittee with Federal Subject Matter Expertise

    • Approve Cloud Computing deliverables for submission to the Cloud Computing ESC

    • Cross-Functional Collaboration