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The Trojan War
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  1. The Trojan War

  2. How it all began… • Banquet for the wedding of Peleus and Thetis • All the divinities were invited, except for Eris (Discord) • She sent in a golden apple labeled For the Fairest • Hera, Pallas Athena, and Aphrodite all try to claim it • They are sent to Paris to learn who earns the apple • working as a shepherd because it was prophesized that he would bring ruin to Troy

  3. The Judgment • Paris was living with a nymph named Oenone (ee n oh n ee) • Each goddess offers Paris a bribe: • Athena- make him lord of Europe and Asia • Hera- give him victory over Greece • Aphrodite- will give him the most beautiful woman in the world • Paris is a coward and weakling, so he picks Aphrodite

  4. The Most Beautiful WomanHelen

  5. Helen’s Marriage • She is daughter is of Zeus and Leda • She is desired by every prince in Greece • Husband gets to be king of Sparta • Her suitors must agree to punish anyone who might kidnap her • Menelaus is chosen

  6. The Meeting • Paris goes to Sparta as a guest of Menelaus and Helen • Law of hospitality= Paris is warmly welcomed • Menelaus must go to Crete, trusts Paris • Paris breaks law of hospitality and runs away with Helen

  7. War Begins The agreement for Helen’s betrothal is enacted • Odysseus • King of Ithaca • Doesn’t want to leave family • Attempts to feign madness • Is outwitted- must join cause • Hero of The Odyssey and the one who dreams up the solution to the war’s stalemate. • Achilles • His mother, Thetis, knows he will die at Troy • Hides him in a royal court, disguised as a girl • Odysseus, the cleverest Greek, must retrieve him • Achilles cannot maintain the disguise- must join the war

  8. Pre-War Obstacle • 1000 ships set out for Troy • The ships can’t sail at Aulis • North wind prevents them • Artemis is angered over the killing of a rabbit • To appease her, a maiden must be sacrificed • Iphigenia, daughter of Agamemnon (brother of Menelaus and commander in chief) agrees to save face • Her death allows them to sail

  9. The Trojan Royals • Priam: King • Older, has many children • Hecuba: Queen • Paris • Hector • Greatest warrior in Troy • noblest son; kind to Helen, but does not desire her • Andromache • Hector’s wife • Cassandra • Apollo loved her and gave her gift of prophecy • She rejected him, he cursed her- no one will believe her

  10. Greek Leaders Agamemnon a. King of Mycenae b. Leader of the Greeks c. bossy, proud, unreasonable Menelaus a. King of Sparta b. Helen’s husband c. Agamemnon’s brother Achilles a. immortal except for his heel b. golden armor c. greatest Greek warrior Odysseus a. King of Ithaca b. Crafty, the smartest hero

  11. Conflicts Over Women Chryseis a. Agamemnon captured her b. Her dad is a priest of Apollo, and he begs her release c. Agamemnon refuses d. Divine retribution: Apollo rains down arrows of fatal sickness on Greeks e. Achilles calls a conference and brings in Calchas, a soothsayer f. The verdict: Chryseis must be returned g. Agamemnon’s pride is wounded, he is furious Briseis a. Achilles captured her b. When forced to give up Chryseis, Agamemnon takes Briseis from Achilles c. Achilles is furious: he drops out of the war, stays in his tent d. Greeks begin to lose the war