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Allaa Hassan. The Evil Mind Controlling Parasite aka Dicrocoelium dendriticum. dih - kroh -SEE-lee-um den- DRIH - tih - kum. D. Dendriticum. Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Trematoda Order: Plagiorchiida Family: Dicrocoeliidae Genus: Dicrocoelium Species: Dicrocoelium dendriticum

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d dendriticum
D. Dendriticum
  • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
  • Class: Trematoda
  • Order: Plagiorchiida
  • Family: Dicrocoeliidae
  • Genus: Dicrocoelium
  • Species: Dicrocoelium dendriticum
  • Liver fluke that is a parasite fluke.
    • Lives in the liver of its hosts
  • 3 host life cycle
    • Adult worm chills inside sheep/cow
    • Lays eggs
    • Sheds into environment with

host’s poo

geographic range
Geographic Range
  • Europe
  • North Asia
  • North America and Australia
  • North Africa
  • Found in areas favoring intermediate hosts
    • Fields with dry and chalky soils.
definitive hosts
Definitive Hosts
  • Cows
  • Sheep
      • Any ‘grazer’
  • Although rare, humans, herbivorous, and carnivorous mammals can also serve as definitive hosts
    • through ingestion of infected ants.
  • No known vector
intermediate hosts
Intermediate hosts
  • 1st
    • Land snail
  • 2nd
    • Ant
reservoirs
Reservoirs
  • Sheep
  • Cows
  • Land snails
  • Ants
  • Goats
  • Pigs
  • Llamas
  • Alpacas
life cycle1
Life cycle…
  • Captain Higgins
  • http://theoatmeal.com/comics/captain_higgins
life cycle2
Life cycle…
  • Cows/sheep spread D. dendricitum eggs via poo.
  • Snails ingest poo along with eggs.
  • Eggs hatch in snail intestine, parasite crosses the wall of snail gut, settles in digestive gland, matures into fluke.
  • Fluke produces cercariae, snail’s defense system wraps cercariae in balls of slime.
    • Slime is coughed up by snail.
  • Ants ingest slime balls along with cercariae.
  • Parasite enters ant’s body, wanders, finds its way to a cluster of nerves that control ant’s motor skill.
  • Most lancet flukes go back to abdomen to form cysts.
    • 1 or 2 stay behind in ants head…
zombie mode symptoms effects
Zombie mode (Symptoms/effects)
  • Once they have control over ant’s motor skills…zombie mode begins.
  • When the sun goes down, and the temperature is a bit cooler, the infected ant leaves its colony and is driven to the top of a blade of grass.
  • The ant is driven to clamp its jaws on the blade of grass until the sun rises once again.
  • (if ant is not eaten) once dawn comes, the ant resumes it daily activities with the colony, as if nothing happened.
  • This continues night after night until the ant is eaten with blades of grass, by grazers.
video
Video
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lGSUU3E9ZoM
once ingested
Once ingested…
  • The flukes shoot out of the ants head and head straight for the liver.
    • They chill there until they’re adults.
  • Continue their lifecycle; they stay there, get married, have baby eggs.
  • Eggs are released into the
    • bile duct
    • Intestines
    • Poo
question
Question
  • Why does the ant come out at night and then head back to the colony after dawn?
  • Why not stay out during daylight?
diagnostic tests
Diagnostic tests
  • Humans
    • examine bile/ duodenal fluid for eggs
  • Animals
    • stool examination
    • post-mortem examination of the liver.
symptoms in humans
Symptoms in Humans
  • Rare in humans
  • Most infections are asymptomatic and light
  • In heavier infections:
    • Cholecystitis
      • Inflamed gallbladder
    • Liver abscesses
    • Upper abdominal pain.
treatment
Treatment
  • Drug of choice
    • Praziquantel
works cited
Works Cited
  • http://people.emich.edu/kselby/page%202.html
  • http://theoatmeal.com/comics/captain_higgins
  • http://www.damninteresting.com/a-fluke-of-nature
  • http://www2.biology.ualberta.ca/parasites/ParPub/text/index/plagi02i.htm
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lGSUU3E9ZoM
  • http://dailyparasite.blogspot.com/2010/08/august-10-dicrocoelium-dendriticum.html
  • http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/Dicrocoeliasis.htm
  • http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/Dicrocoeliasis.htm