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Presentation 3: Implementation of Fisheries Management: Requirements, Options and Obstacles. Kevern Cochrane Director: Fisheries and Aquaculture Resources Use and Conservation Division. Structure of the Presentation. Introduction What is fisheries management?

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presentation 3 implementation of fisheries management requirements options and obstacles
Presentation 3: Implementation of Fisheries Management: Requirements, Options and Obstacles

Kevern Cochrane

Director: Fisheries and Aquaculture Resources Use and Conservation Division

structure of the presentation
Structure of the Presentation

Introduction

  • What is fisheries management?

The elements of fisheries management in practice

  • Steps in the process
  • Management measures

Impacts of capacity and scales on management

  • Small and large scale fisheries and implications of the precautionary approach
  • Management at different spatial scales:

Evaluating the effectiveness of management

  • Criteria for evaluating adequacy of management

Progress in fisheries management around the world

  • Indicators of progress in fisheries management around the world
  • Technical assistance
what is fisheries management
What is Fisheries Management

The integrated process of information gathering, analysis, planning, consultation, decision- making, allocation of resources and formulation and implementation, with enforcement as necessary, of regulations or rules which govern fisheries activities in order to ensure the continued productivity of the resources and the accomplishment of other fisheries objectives.

(FAO Guidelines on Fisheries Management, 1997)

the elements of fisheries management
The Elements of Fisheries Management

FAO Guidelines on EAF. 2003

scaling up from local to stock and ecosystem fanning mahon and mcconney coastal management 2009
Scaling-up: from local to Stock and Ecosystem (Fanning, Mahon and McConney. Coastal Management, 2009)

The Caribbean Large Marine Ecosystem includes 26 countries and 19 territories

managing at multiple scales for shared and straddling stocks fanning et al coastal management 2009
Managing at Multiple Scales for Shared and Straddling Stocks(Fanning et al. Coastal Management, 2009)
slide14
MINIMUM SUBSTANTIVE REQUIREMENTS AND CRITERIA FOR ECOLABELS:
  • 26. The requirements and criteria are to be based on and interpreted in accordance with the current suite of agreed international instruments, in particular the 1982 UNCLOS, the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement and the 1995 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, as well as related documentation including the 2001 Reykjavik Declaration on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem.
  • 27. Requirements are specified for three areas: the management systems, the fishery and associated “stock under consideration” for which certification is being sought, and serious impacts of the fishery on the ecosystem.
requirement 28 the fishery is conducted under a management system
Requirement: 28. The fishery is conducted under a management system ..
  • ...which is based upon good practice and meets the requirements and criteria described in Paragraph 29.
  • operates in compliance with the requirements of local, national and international law and regulations
    • 28.1 For the “stock under consideration” there are documented management approaches with a well based expectation that management will be successful taking into account uncertainty and imprecision.
    • 28.2 There are objectives, and as necessary, management measures to address pertinent aspects of the ecosystem effects of fishing as per paragraph 31.
criteria for management systems para 29
Criteria for Management Systems(para 29)
  • The following criteria will apply to management systems for any fisheries, but it must be recognized that special consideration needs to be given to small-scale fisheries with respect to the availability of data and... that management systems can differ substantially for different types and scales of fisheries.
    • adequate data and/or information are collected, maintained and assessed
    • the best scientific evidence available is taken into account as well as consideration of relevant (and validated) traditional fisher or community knowledge
    • Management targets are consistent with achieving maximum sustainable yield (MSY) (or a suitable proxy) on average, or a lesser fishing mortality if that is optimal
    • appropriate measures for conservation and sustainable use implemented
    • an effective legal and administrative framework and compliance is ensured
    • the precautionary approach is being implemented
stocks under consideration para 30
“Stocks under Consideration”para 30
  • The “stock under consideration” is not overfished if it is above the associated limit reference point (or its proxy).
  • If fishing mortality (or its proxy) is above the associated limit reference point for F, actions should be taken to decrease it below that limit.
  • The structure and composition of the stock which contribute to its resilience are taken into account (e.g. size composition, spatial distribution).
  • In the absence of specific information on the stock generic evidence based on similar stocks can be used for fisheries – taking into account the impact on quality of information to risk to the stock
ecosystem considerations para 31
Ecosystem Considerations(para 31)
  • Non target catches, including discards, of stocks other than the “stock under consideration” are monitored and should not be threatened with serious risk of extinction;
  • The role of the “stock under consideration” in the foodweb is considered
  • There is knowledge of the essential habitats for the stock under consideration: impacts on essential habitats and on habitats that are highly vulnerable to damage by the fishery are minimized or mitigated; the full spatial range of the relevant habitat should be considered,
  • In the absence of specific information on the ecosystem impacts of fishing, generic evidence based on similar fishery situations can be used, taking into account the impact on quality of information to risk to the stock
addressing the methodological diversity
Addressing the Methodological Diversity
  • There are many ways in which state and trends in stocks may be evaluated, that fall short of the highly quantitative and data-demanding approaches … Use of less elaborate methods ..should not preclude fisheries from possible certification for ecolabelling….[NB…more precautionary approaches to managing such resources will be required] …There is a variety of management measures commonly used in small scale or low value fisheries that nonetheless can achieve quite adequate levels of protection for stocks in the face of uncertainty about the state of the resource. (para 32)
indicators of effectiveness sunken billions 1
Indicators of Effectiveness: Sunken Billions1
  • Economic losses in marine fisheries add up to US$50 billion per year
  • Resulting from poor management, inefficiencies, and overfishing
  • Arises from too many vessels, increasingly powerful fishing technologies, and increasing pollution and habitat loss have depleted fish stocks worldwide

1. http://siteresources.worldbank.org

problems being experienced by countries in achieving sustainability
Problems being experienced by countries in achieving sustainability*
  • Biological and ecological uncertainty
  • Conflict between short-term economic and social objectives and the longer-term sustainability objectives
  • Poorly or loosely defined management objectives – reactive management
  • Institutional weaknesses:
    • the absence, or weak or inappropriate systems, of user rights; and
    • predominance of top-down and centralised management approaches;
  • Weak and frequently inadequate capacity in fisheries administrations
  • Inadequate monitoring, control and surveillance systems (MCS) leading to high levels of IUU fishing

* from Cochrane and Doulman (2005)

*Cochrane & Doulman 2005

examples of institutional needs and problems identified in the bclme countries cochrane et al 2009
Examples of Institutional needs and problems identified in the BCLME countries (Cochrane et al., 2009)
  • Need to improve stakeholder consultation and involvement
  • Issues related to access rights still affecting management in all three countries
  • No formal, active management plans in place in Angola and Namibia
  • Problems being experienced with data capture and storage in three countries
  • Problems in attracting and retaining research staff, particularly in Namibia and South Africa
  • Problems in effective monitoring, control and surveillance being experienced in three countries
fao assistance to sustainable management
FAO Assistance to Sustainable Management
  • The Fisheries and Aquaculture Department has a staff of 147 individuals (83 professional staff) with an annual budget of approximately US$70 million (in both cases combining Regular Programme and project resources);
  • Assistance in implementation of the Code of Conduct, encompassing EAF (and EAA), is primary goal of FAO;
  • Bulk of our personnel and financial resources (regular programme and extra-budgetary) is directed to this end and active throughout world, focused on developing countries;
  • Requests and needs for assistance far outweigh our ability to meet them, notwithstanding complimentary action from a wide range of other organizations and agencies.
conclusions
Conclusions
  • All countries are struggling to meet their commitments and needs for achieving sustainable use of fishery resources.
  • Developing countries and small-scale fisheries in particular face many constraints and will frequently find it more challenging to demonstrate that they are achieving sustainability.
  • Widespread technical support from FAO and others is available but there are enormous challenges, including in developed countries.