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Implementation. What is implementation?. Process by which policies are put into effect. Is crucial A policy is generally useless if it isn’t implemented. Implementation battles are also where power and debate come in. . Reasons for implementation conflict.

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what is implementation
What is implementation?
  • Process by which policies are put into effect.
  • Is crucial
    • A policy is generally useless if it isn’t implemented.
    • Implementation battles are also where power and debate come in.
reasons for implementation conflict
Reasons for implementation conflict
  • Agreement about the goals; differences on methods
  • Pre-enactment opposition becomes post implementation conflict
is implementation technical or political
Is implementation technical, or political?
  • The old idea: administration simply does the will of the legislature
  • The modern view: politics matters in administration
who implements
Who implements?
  • The executive branch
  • The legislative branch
  • The judicial branch
  • Other levels of government
  • Private actors
a history of the study of implementation
A History of the Study of Implementation
  • The first generation: case studies
    • Martha Derthick’s New Towns in Town
    • Pressman and Wildavsky’s Implementation
  • Lessons
    • Need commitment in the executive branch
    • Consider local needs
    • Consider and adapt to local conditions
    • There is no “one” policy
    • The complexity of joint action
the second generation attempts at theorizing
The second generation: attempts at theorizing
  • Systems like models of implementation
  • Bottom up and top down models
  • Strengths: first attempts at creating some kind of unified theory of implementation
  • Weakness: top down, roles of actors underspecified.
synthesis top down and bottom up models of implementation
Synthesis: top down and bottom up models of implementation
  • Top down—start from the highest level policy maker and design a policy to influence the lowest level actor (target or implementer)
  • Bottom-up—starts from the perspective of the target or implementer
    • How can policy be designed to induce implementer compliance/enthusiasm?
a third generation malcolm goggin et al
A third generation (Malcolm Goggin et al)
  • Implementation is communication between policy makers and implementers
  • Propositions:
    • Clear messages sent by credible officials and received by receptive implementers who have/are given sufficient resources and who implement policies supported by affected groups lead to implementation success
    • Strategic delay on the part of states, while delaying the implementation of policies, can actually lead to improved implementation of policies through innovation, policy learning, bargaining and the like.
  • Synthesis: top down and bottom up models of implementation
  • Why all this attention? Policy failure?
why public policies may not work
Why Public Policies May Not Work
  • Inadequate resources
  • Policies may be administered so as to lessen their potential effect.
  • Public problems are often caused by a multitude of factors, but policy may be directed at only one or a few of them. Why?
why public policies may not work11
Why Public Policies May Not Work
  • People may respond or adapt to public policies in a manner that negates some of their influence.
  • Policies may have incompatible goals that bring them into conflict with one another.
  • Solutions for some problems may involve costs and consequences greater than people are willing to accept.
why public policies may not work12
Why Public Policies May Not Work
  • Many problems simply cannot be solved, or at least not completely
  • New problems may arise that distract attention from a problem
  • Many national problems and policies are actually implemented by state and local agencies, and are sometimes designed at the local level
responses to these problems
Responses to these problems
  • Adjustments in enforcement
  • More money is put into the program
  • Challenge to legality or constitutionality
  • The program is simply ignored
  • The program is left to locals to improve on and pursue
  • The program is actually repealed
deborah stone types of policy tools
Deborah Stone: Types of Policy tools
  • Inducements
  • Facts
  • Rules
  • Rights
  • Powers
inducements
Inducements
  • Based on rewards, or their withdrawal
  • Involves the inducement giver, the receiver, and the inducement itself.
  • Assumes the target is a rational actor
  • Examples: tax deductions, pay raises, bonuses for completing work early, bonuses for increased efficiencies, etc.
problems with inducements
Problems with inducements:
  • The target’s perception of the inducements
  • The target is not often a sole unitary actor
  • The inducement may disrupt personal and social relationships
  • Slow, time-consuming
  • Applying a penalty hurts the very thing one is trying to protect,
  • People and organizations will try to reap the reward without making the desired change in behavior.
facts
Facts
  • Use of facts to persuade people is a very common tool in American politics.
  • Good as an appeal to rationality and logic
  • Bad when it’s just propaganda, questionable science, or dogma
  • Just because you lay out some rational, sound facts doesn’t mean that they will be met with unquestioning acceptance and behavior based on that acceptance.
rules
Rules
  • Statute laws, case law, regulations,etc.
  • prescribing or proscribing behavior
  • How rules work
    • They are indirect (they work broadly over all classes or groups of people or organizations)
    • They work because they are assumed to be legitimate (the government has a right to make the rules)
    • Tend to have a conditional/situational aspect: if...then.
rules20
Rules
  • The challenge: striking a balance between precision and flexibility
    • Anatole France: “The law in its majesty equally prohibits the rich and the poor from stealing bread and sleeping on park benches.”
why precision is good
Why precision is good:
  • Treating like alike
  • Shield from the whims of government
  • predictability
problems with precision
Problems with precision
  • Leads to different cases being treated alike
  • Stifle creative response to new situations
  • Leads to a belief that a certain amount of vagueness and discretion is good.
rights
Rights
  • The government can create rights, but more often it is individual action, through the courts, that creates new rights or enhances enforcement of existing ones.
rights are not self enforcing
Rights are not self enforcing
  • First, the right must be claimed by an individual, making the rights-seeker sort of weak.
  • Second, the right must be proclaimed by some legitimate, authoritative body such as a court
  • Third, the right must be enforced. This can be difficult sometimes.
    • “The courts as “the least dangerous branch”
your challenge
Your challenge
  • To be a credible sender of a signal
  • To make that signal clear
  • To identify and address the willing implementers (policy targets)
  • To identify a kind of policy that your targets or implementers will agree too
  • To be sufficiently flexible to accommodate or circumvent “strategic delay” or outright resistance (this is the point of the first three bullets here)