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International Conference on ‘Eco-Industrial Parks’ HICC, HITEX, Hyderabad. July 6, 2009. Industrial Area Planning and Management: Status, Needs and Challenges in India. Presented by: Ashwani Kumar Utpal Sharma Anil Kumar Roy. Faculty of Planning and Public Policy CEPT, Ahmedabad
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International Conference on ‘Eco-Industrial Parks’ HICC, HITEX, Hyderabad July 6, 2009 Industrial Area Planning and Management: Status, Needs and Challenges in India Presented by: Ashwani Kumar Utpal Sharma Anil Kumar Roy Faculty of Planning and Public Policy CEPT, Ahmedabad www.cept.ac.in firstname.lastname@example.org
Indian Industrial Sector : Paradigm Shift • Economic, Environmental and Social priorities • 1948 and 1956: Industrial Policy Resolution • 1951 : Industries (Development and Regulation) Act • 1977 & 1980 : Statement of Industrial Policy • 1991 : New Industrial Policy (NIP) Nature Typology Scale Raw material Employment Technology Policy instruments FDI globalized regime Tax holidays Industrial packages Industries corridors Export-import policies.
Typology of Industrialization • Industrial clusters, growth centers • Foot loose Large, medium and Small industries • Industrial Estates/Areas • Free Trade Zones/ Export Processing Zones (EPZs), EPIP • Industries Townships/Development Authorities • Software Technology Parks/Electronic Hardware Technology Parks, IT and ITES • Special Economic Zones, Special Investment Regions • Dedicated industrial/freight corridors
Industrial Estate Development Objectives The objectives of promoting the Industrial Estates were: To create essential factory sheds or land for setting of industries units in orderly and organized manner. Provide the basic facilities in these centers i.e power, lighting, banking, telecommunications, shopping , social facilities etc. To stimulate the industrialization in backward and tribal areas To develop the Small Scale Industries Approach adopted? Reservation of Items for SSI units Financial Assistance in form of capital risk, long term and medium term loans, sort term working capital by State Financial institutions Tax benefits, subsidized infrastructure facilities, etc.
Structure Large and medium More than 200,000 Factories A work force of 14 million workers, and 4 million technical personnel Manufacturing currently represents 24% of gross domestic product SSI/Cottage Grown from 80,000 units in the late 1940s more than 3.3 million SSI (2004-05) working units with 18 millions employees and with more than 2 million cottage industries SSI sector alone contributes 7% to India’s GDP. Performance of Small Scale Sector (at current prices) (Ref: 2004-05 Annual Report of SSI Ministry)
EoUs in SEZs 439 SEZs formally approved and more than 200 notified Total land area involved in approved SEZ is 60168 hectares Areas with State Industrial Development Corporations in 97 approved SEZs 20,000 hectares Most of Notified SEZs are of IT/ITES nature Total Export (2007-08) from EoU (in and outside SEZs) was Rs. 766.15 billion
Problems of Industrial Estates (IE)? • Lack of Planning • IE are usually located in areas which are not having any protection to natural water environment • Sensitive receiving Environment • Natural water is precious commodity for the human consumption in the rural areas, which got effected due to pollution • Necessitate regulation/minimization of pollution • Enforced regulation • Logistics Support • Inter and Intra country transport, Warehousing, Systems • Landuse control/ Land Management • Zonation, Availability of suitable land • Siting • Lack of adequate infrastructure • Environmental protection measures • Logistic support • Landuse Control and Land Management
Genesis of Environmental Issues in SSIs • Due to the policies initiated, the IE dominated by the SSI and lead areas lead to environmental pollution, hazards and risk: • Inadequate technological understating • (high waste generation and lax attitude towards treatment) • Lack of space for implementation of pollution control measure • Ineffective process supervision and management • Lack of consultative mechanism • Non-availability of Treatment technologies for SSI • Affordability • In-effective regulation due to overstressed regulatory machinery and undesirable political interference etc
Hotspots in India: Water Source: CSE Report based on CPCB Norms
IEP Components Industrial Estate Planning (IEP) A sustainable development step • Identification and delineation of suitable IE sites [landuse sensitivity, pollution potential, environmental sensitivity, land potential); • Generation of a suitable industrial development format (nature, scale/size, type) • Social and environmental impact assessment and management (risks prediction, spatial influence) • Infrastructure Master Plan [physical, logistical, environmental and social] • Landuse Zonation plan [development zone, buffer zone, infrastructure corridors] • Development (Landuse) controls regulations; and • Information, Communication and Telecommunication plan
Major Challenges • Lack of advocacy for planned industrial development; • Low capacity for physical & infrastructure planning, development and management at par with international standards; • Acute crunch of trained human resources; • Non-supportive policy regime; • Inadequate facilities, allied amenities in the Industrial areas; and • Lack of capacity of the industrial developers
CYBERABAD DEVELOPMENT PLAN PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT PLAN EXISTING SITE CONDITIONS A R C H I T E C T S A N D P L A N N E R SVASTU SHILPA CONSULTANTS
CYBERABAD : PROPOSED FSI VARIATIONS FSI GR. FLOORS BLDG HTS. X COV. (%) WITH OUT PARKING 1.0 30-50 2-3 6-9 M 1.25 30-40 3-5 9-15 M 1.5 25-30 4-6 12-18 M 1.75 20-30 6-9 18-27 M 3.0 20-30 10-15 30-45 M 3.5 15-25 14-24 42-72 M 4.0 18-25 16-40 48-120 M A R C H I T E C T S A N D P L A N N E R SVASTU SHILPA CONSULTANTS
VAGRA- DAHEJ SUB REGIONAL PLAN GUJARAT ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION PLAN For Urban Development and Urban Housing Department, Govt. of Gujarat Year: 2000 For Gujarat Ecology Commission (GEC), Vadodara Year: 1997
Spatial Planning ? RELATIVE LOCATION HIGH HIGH HIGH POTENTIAL THREAT NATURE and HUMAN MEDIUM MEDIUM MEDIUM LOW LOW LOW Planned and Regulated Development FOREST WATERBODIES LAND RISK ANALYSIS SLOPE
Land Use Pattern in the Growth Centre Region – Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh
Land Use Pattern in the Growth Centre Region – Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh NEDFi, Guwahati (for all the North Eastern States) Central Government Government of Arunachal Pradesh / Nagaland Other Departments of Government of Arunachal Pradesh Department of Industries Department of Finance Arunachal Pradesh / Nagaland Growth Centres Development Corporation (proposed) Objective: Promotion, Operationalising and Maintaining the Growth Centre
Information Management SOURCE INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION OF INFORMATION COLLECTION PROCESSING USERS SYSTEM SYSTEM Policy planning group Promoting agency Estate promoter Data processing Pollution control board Data bank Pollution control devices Consent application forms questionnaire Reconnaissance survey Legislative action Industry Wet inventory Industries of estate
Centre for Industrial Areas Planning and Management at CEPT • Aimed to focus on capacity building of human resource involved in designing/planning, development & management of large scale industrial development • Research and Development • Education • Training • Monitoring and Evaluation • Technical support • Documentation and Dissemination of information • Development Partnership/Networking In the context of globalization, pursuance of this mission would mean adoption of innovative, flexible and transparent approaches, methodologies/delivery mechanisms that keep pace with rapidly changing environment.
What should be done? • Long terms vision creation for land management • Synchronisation of Policies • Human resource, knowledge base government-industry-academia interface • Intuitional strengthening, capacity building [project planning, infrastructure design & development, project implementation] • Facilitation AND Industrial Area Services Agencies • Resource Mobilization [financial management and economic analysis]
Thank You ! Wish you and your dear ones “A safe, pollution free happy and joyful life “ Ashwani Kumar CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING & TECHNOLOGY KASTURBHAI LALBHAI CAMPUS University Road, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad – 380 009 Phone no.: (079) 26302470, 26302740 Email : email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org