Recent Advances in Fusion: The Energy Source for the XXI Century - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Recent Advances in Fusion: The Energy Source for the XXI Century

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  1. Recent Advances in Fusion:The Energy Source for the XXI Century Mohamed Abdou Distinguished Professor, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department Director, Center for Energy Science and Technology Advanced Research (CESTAR) Director, Fusion Science and Technology Center University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) The Second International Conference on Thermal Engineering Theory and Applications January 3-6, 2006 Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

  2. What is Nuclear Fusion? • Nuclear Fusionis the energy-producing process taking place in the core of the Sun and stars • The core temperature of the Sunis about 15 million °C. At these temperatures hydrogennuclei fuse to give Helium and Energy. The energy sustains life on Earth via sunlight

  3. Fusion Reactions • Deuterium– from water(0.02% of all hydrogen is heavy hydrogenor deuterium) • Tritium– from lithium(a light metal common in the Earth’s crust) Deuterium + Lithium → Helium + Energy This fusion cycle(which has the fastest reaction rate) is of interest for Energy Production

  4. The World, particularly in developing countries, needs a New Energy Source • Growth in world populationand growth in energy demand from increased industrialisation/affluencewill lead to an Energy Gap which will be increasingly difficult to fill with fossil fuels • Without improvements in efficiency we will need 80%more energy by 2020 • Even with efficiency improvements at the limit of technology we would still need 40%more energy

  5. World Energy Scene* (I) • 1) The world uses a lot of energy • Average power consumption = 13.6 TWs, or 2.2 kWs per person • World energy market ~ $3 trillion/yr (electricity ~$1 trillion/yr) • - very unevenly (OECD 6.2 kW/person; Bangladesh 0.20 kW/person; China 1.3kW/person) • 2) World energy use is expected to grow • - growth necessary to lift billions of people out of poverty • 3) 80% is generated by burning fossil fuels •  climate change & debilitating pollution • - which won’t last for ever Need major new (clean) energy sources - requires new technology *See Sir Chris Llewellyn-Smith, FPA, October 11, 2005

  6. Future Energy Use • The International Energy Agency (IEA) expects the world’s energy use to increase 60% by 2030 (while population expected to grow from 6.2B to 8.1B) - driven largely by growth of energy use and population in India (current use = 0.7 kWs/person, vs. OECD average of 6.2 kWs/person) and China (current use = 1.3 kWs/person) • Strong link between energy use and the Human Development Index (HDI ~ life expectancy at birth + adult literacy and school enrolment + gross national product per capita at purchasing power parity) – need increased energy use to lift billions out of poverty

  7. Carbon dioxide levels over the last 60,000 years - we are provoking the atmosphere! SourceUniversity of Berne and National Oceanic, and Atmospheric Administration

  8. Meeting the Energy Challenge Requires: Fiscal measures to change the behaviour of consumers, and provide incentives to expand use of low carbon technologies Actions to improve efficiency (domestic, transport, …) Use of renewables where appropriate (although locally useful, not hugely significant globally) • BUT only four sources capable in principle of meeting a large fraction of the world’s energy needs: • Burning fossil fuels(currently 80%) - develop & deploy CO2 capture and storage • Solar - seek breakthroughs in production and storage • Nuclear fission- hard to avoid if we are serious about reducing fossil fuel burning (at least until fusion available) • Fusion - with so few options, we must develop fusion as fast as possible, even if success is not 100% certain

  9. ITER • The World is about to construct the next step in fusion development, a device called ITER • ITER will demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes • ITER will produce 500 MW of fusion power • Cost, including R&D, is 15 billion dollars

  10. ITER Design - Main Features Divertor Central Solenoid Blanket Module Vacuum Vessel Outer Intercoil Structure Cryostat Toroidal Field Coil Port Plug (IC Heating) Poloidal Field Coil Machine Gravity Supports Torus Cryopump

  11. ITER is a collaborative effort among Europe, Japan, US, Russia, China, South Korea, and India

  12. ITER Location Caradache (France) Rokkasho (Japan) • Cadarache was selected as the ITER construction site. There will be some facilities in Rokassho under the “Broader Approach” agreement.

  13. Fusion Power Station Schematic

  14. Fusion Nuclear Technology (FNT) Fusion Power & Fuel Cycle Technology FNT Components from the edge of the Plasma to TF Coils(Reactor “Core”) 1. Blanket Components 2. Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components a. Divertor, limiter b. RF antennas, launchers, wave guides, etc. 3. Vacuum Vessel & Shield Components Other Components affected by the Nuclear Environment 4. Tritium Processing Systems 5. Instrumentation and Control Systems 6. Remote Maintenance Components 7. Heat Transport and Power Conversion Systems

  15. Blanket Radiation Plasma Neutrons Shield Vacuum vessel First Wall Coolant for energy conversion Magnets Tritium breeding zone

  16. Blanket (including first wall) Blanket Functions: • Power Extraction • Convert kinetic energy of neutrons and secondary gamma rays into heat • Absorb plasma radiation on the first wall • Extract the heat (at high temperature, for energy conversion) • Tritium Breeding • Tritium breeding, extraction, and control • Must have lithium in some form for tritium breeding • Physical Boundary for the Plasma • Physical boundary surrounding the plasma, inside the vacuum vessel • Provide access for plasma heating, fueling • Must be compatible with plasma operation • Innovative blanket concepts can improve plasma stability and confinement • Radiation Shielding of the Vacuum Vessel

  17. Blanket Materials • Tritium Breeding Material (Lithium in some form) Liquid: Li, LiPb (83Pb 17Li), lithium-containing molten salts Solid: Li2O, Li4SiO4, Li2TiO3, Li2ZrO3 • Neutron Multiplier (for most blanket concepts) Beryllium (Be, Be12Ti) Lead (in LiPb) • Coolant – Li, LiPb – Molten Salt –Helium –Water • Structural Material • Ferritic Steel (accepted worldwide as the reference for DEMO) • Long-term: Vanadium alloy (compatible only with Li), and SiC/SiC • MHD insulators (for concepts with self-cooled liquid metals) • Thermal insulators (only in some concepts with dual coolants) • Tritium Permeation Barriers (in some concepts) • Neutron Attenuators and Reflectors

  18. A Helium-Cooled Li-Ceramic Breeder Concept: Example • Material Functions • Beryllium (pebble bed) for neutron multiplication • Ceramic breeder (Li4SiO4, Li2TiO3, Li2O, etc.) for tritium breeding • Helium purge (low pressure) to remove tritium through the “interconnected porosity” in ceramic breeder • High pressure Helium cooling in structure (ferritic steel) Several configurations exist (e.g. wall parallel or “head on” breeder/Be arrangements)

  19. Vanadium structure Lithium Li Secondary Shield Li Primary Shield Li Breeding Zone (Li flow) Reflector Primary shield (Tenelon) Secondary shield (B4C) Reflector Vanadium structure Lithium Li/Vanadium Blanket Concept

  20. DCLL Typical Unit Cell Self-cooled Pb-17Li Breeding Zone SiC FCI He-cooled steelstructure Pathway Toward Higher Temperature Through Innovative Designs with Current Structural Material (Ferritic Steel):Dual Coolant Lead-Lithium (DCLL) FW/Blanket Concept • First wall and ferritic steel structure cooled with helium • Breeding zone is self-cooled • Structure and Breeding zone are separated by SiCf/SiC composite flow channel inserts (FCIs) that • Provide thermal insulation to decouple PbLi bulk flow temperature from ferritic steel wall • Provide electrical insulation to reduce MHD pressure drop in the flowing breeding zone Pb-17Li exit temperature can be significantly higher than the operating temperature of the steel structure  High Efficiency

  21. Flows of electrically conducting coolants will experience complicated magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects What is magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)? • Motion of a conductor in a magnetic field produces an EMF that can induce current in the liquid. This must be added to Ohm’s law: • Any induced current in the liquid results in an additional body force in the liquid that usually opposes the motion. This body force must be included in the Navier-Stokes equation of motion: • For liquid metal coolant, this body force can have dramatic impact on the flow: e.g. enormous MHD drag, highly distorted velocity profiles, non-uniform flow distribution, modified or suppressed turbulent fluctuations

  22. Net JxB body force p = cVB2 where c = (tw w)/(a ) For high magnetic field and high speed (self-cooled LM concepts in inboard region) the pressure drop is large The resulting stresses on the wall exceed the allowable stress for candidate structural materials Perfect insulators make the net MHD body force zero But insulator coating crack tolerance is very low (~10-7). It appears impossible to develop practical insulators under fusion environment conditions with large temperature, stress, and radiation gradients Self-healing coatings have been proposed but none has yet been found (research is on-going) Large MHD drag results in large MHD pressure drop Conducting walls Insulated wall Lines of current enter the low resistance wall – leads to very high induced current and high pressure drop All current must close in the liquid near the wall – net drag from jxB force is zero

  23. Many liquid wall reactor concepts for high power density were conceived & analyzed in APEX • Many candidate liquids were studied: Li, Sn-Li, Sn, Flibe and Flinabe • Several liquid wall flow schemes were conceived: • Thick liquid walls • Thin fast flowing protection layer (CLIFF) • Inertial or EM assisted wall adhesion • Integrated or stand-alone divertors • Concept performance was analyzed from many perspectives • Liquid wall flow MHD and heat transfer • Breeding, shielding and activation potential • Simplicity of system design, maintenance • Interactions of liquid walls with plasma operation were emphasized • Plasma edge effects, impurities & recycling • Liquid metal motion coupling to plasma modes Fast Flow Cassette Outboard Fast Flow Inboard Fast Flow Divertor Cassette SurfaceRenewal Bottom Drain Flow Thin liquid wall concept (blanket region behind LW not shown)

  24. New simulation tools and experimental facilities used to address flowing liquid metals in NSTX divertor fields – now being applied to DCLL-TBM ‘Pinching in’ • New phenomenon observed in both experiments and numerical simulation for film flows in NSTX divertor: the liquid film tends to ‘pinch in’ away from the wall under a positive surface normal magnetic field gradient. PbLi FCI Gallium flow experiment at UCLA M-TOR facility • Simulation with MHD research code (at UCLA) shows tendency for strong reversed flow jets near slot or crack in flow channel insert (MTOR experiments in development) HIMAG simulation of the above experiment Flow Velocity : 3 m/s Average surface normal field gradient: 0.6 T/m

  25. Summary • The D-T Fusion process offers the promise of: • Virtually unlimited energy source from cheap abundant fuels; • No atmospheric pollution of greenhouse and acid rain gases; • Low radioactive burden from waste for future generations. • Tremendous Progress has been achieved over the past decades in plasma physics and fusion technology. • Fusion R&D involves many challenging areas of physics and technologies and is carried out through extensive international collaboration • EU, JA, USA, RF, PRC, Korea, and India are about to construct ITERto demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy (ITER will produce 500MW of fusion power )