chapter 8 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 8 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 8

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 61

Chapter 8 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 356 Views
  • Updated on

Chapter 8. Understanding and Installing Hard Drives. You Will Learn…. About hard drive technologies How a computer communicates with hard drive firmware How a hard drive is logically organized to hold data How to install a hard drive How to solve hard drive installation problems.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Chapter 8


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. Chapter 8 Understanding and Installing Hard Drives

    2. You Will Learn… • About hard drive technologies • How a computer communicates with hard drive firmware • How a hard drive is logically organized to hold data • How to install a hard drive • How to solve hard drive installation problems A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    3. Hard Drive Technologies • Used by hard drive to interface with the system • Used within hard drive to read and write data to the drive A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    4. Hard Drive Subsystem A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    5. Types of Hard Drive Interfaces • EIDE (Enhanced IDE*) interface standards used by most hard drives • Other interface standards * IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    6. EIDE Interface Standards • Specify data transfer speed more than any other factor • Considerations when selecting a standard • Use fastest standard appropriate for range of the system and size of the drive • Must be supported by the OS, system BIOS on motherboard, and firmware on the drive • Ultra ATA/100: most popular A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    7. EIDE Interface Standards (continued) • Modes of transferring data between hard drive and memory • PIO transfer mode (Programmed Input/Output ) • The original method used to transfer data between the CPU (through the ATA controller) and an ATA device. • DMA transfer mode (Direct Memory Access) • Allows certain hardware subsystems within a computer to access system memory for reading and/or writing independently of the CPU. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    8. EIDE Interface Standards (continued) • IDE cabling methods • Parallel ATA (PATA) technology • Serial ATA (SATA) technology • Independent device timing A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    9. ANSI Interface Standards A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    10. ANSI Acronym for the American National Standards Institute. Founded in 1918, ANSI is a voluntary organization composed of over 1,300 members (including all the large computer companies) that creates standards for the computer industry. In addition to programming languages, ANSI sets standards for a wide range of technical areas, from electrical specifications to communications protocols. For example, FDDI, the main set of protocols for sending data over fiber optic cables, is an ANSI standard. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    11. IDE Cabling Methods A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    12. IDE Cabling Methods (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    13. IDE Cabling Methods (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    14. Configuring EIDE Drives • EIDE standards support two IDE connections, a primary and a secondary • Each connection can support up to two IDE devices for a total of four devices on a system • Primary IDE channel, master device • Primary IDE channel, slave device • Secondary IDE channel, master device • Secondary IDE channel, slave device A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    15. Configuring EIDE Drives (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    16. Other Interface Standards • SCSI (small computer system interface) • USB • IEEE 1394 • Fibre Channel A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    17. How Hard Drives Work A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    18. How Hard Drives Work (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    19. Tracks and Sectors on the Drive A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    20. Tracks and Sectors on the Drive (continued) CAV Short for constant angular velocity, a technique for accessing data off of rotating disks. With CAV, the disk rotates at a constant speed regardless of what area of the disk is being accessed. This differs from Constant Linear Velocity (CLV), which rotates the disk faster for inner tracks. Disk drives use CAV, whereas CD-ROMs generally use CLV, though some newer drives use a combination of CAV and CLV. The advantage of CAV is that it is much simpler to design and produce because the motor doesn't need to change speed. In addition, CLV runs into problems for very high-speed CD-ROMs because there's a brief latency whenever the drive needs to change the rotational speed. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    21. Tracks and Sectors on the Drive (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    22. Tracks and Sectors on the Drive (continued) Zone Bit Recording A method of recording data on a hard disk drive whereby the sectors per track on the drive are not consistent across the platter. In general, tracks closest to the center have fewer sectors than tracks toward the outside of the platter where the tracks are larger and can fit more sectors. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    23. Low-Level Formatting • Occurs at the factory • Process of writing sector and track markings on the disk i.e. creates sectors & tracks • Expected to last for the life of the drive A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    24. Considerations When Purchasing a Hard Drive • Capacity • Spindle speed • Technology standard • Cache or buffer size • Average seek time • Match drive to motherboard A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    25. Communicating with the Hard Drive Controller A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    26. Calculating Drive Capacity on Older Drives • For drives less than 8.4 GB • Determined by number of heads, tracks, and sectors on the disk, each sector holding 512 bytes of data A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    27. Hard Drive Size Limitations A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    28. Methods of Retaining Backward Compatibility • CHS (Cylinder, Head, Sector) mode or normal mode (for drives less than 528 MB) • Large mode or ECHS (Extended CHS) mode (for drives between 504 MB and 8.4 GB) • LBA (Logical Block Addressing) mode (for drives larger than 504 MB) • 33.8 GB limitation and 137 GB limitation • Device drivers A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    29. Methods of Retaining Backward Compatibility • CHS (Cylinder, Head, Sector) • Large mode or ECHS (Extended CHS) mode • LBA (Logical Block Addressing) mode The drive was accessed by specifying its cylinder, head and sector address. More appropriately, it was referred to as accessing the drive through its "geometry". A transition change in the way a drive was accessed in order to work around the 504 MB barrier, however, the addressing was still done in terms of cylinder, head and sector numbers and then translated one or more times before actually accessing the drive itself. It is a means by which a drive is accessed by linearly addressing sector addresses, beginning at sector 1 of head 0, cylinder 0 as LBA 0, and proceeding on in sequence to the last physical sector on the drive, which, for instance, on a standard 540 Meg drive would be LBA 1,065,456. I.e, each sector is assigned a unique "sector number". A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    30. How a Hard Drive Is Logically Organized to Hold Data • Steps for preparing a hard drive to hold files • Low-level format (usually done at the factory) • Partitioning the hard drive • High-level format A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    31. Hard Drive Partitions and Logical Drives • Active partition – It’s the bootable partition. OS installed in this partition. Only one drive can be set as the active partition on a computer. • Primary partition – The primary partition marked as active contains the OS. Also referred as System Partition. • Extended partition – Can be broken down into smaller drives accessible to the OS. These drives are referred to as logical partitions or logical drives. • Logical partition – Exists in an extended partition. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    32. Partitions and Logical Drives A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    33. Hard Drive Partition Table in MBR A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    34. Choice of File Systems • FAT16 • Supported by all Windows systems • FAT32 (and VFAT) • Supported by Windows 95 Second Edition, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP • NTFS • Supported by Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP • Each logical drive has its own file system A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    35. Size of Logical Drives A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    36. When to Partition a Drive • First install a new hard drive • Existing drive is giving errors • Suspect a virus has attacked the drive • Want to wipe a hard drive clean and install a new OS A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    37. Installing a Hard Drive • Set jumpers or DIP switches; physically install drive; attach power cord and data cable • Inform CMOS of new drive • If installing an OS on the drive, boot from OS setup CD (and skip next two steps) • If drive is not intended to hold an OS, use Fdisk or Disk Management to create partition(s) and divide extended partition into logical drives • For second drive, use Format command or Disk Management to high-level format each logical drive A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    38. Prepare for Installation • Read documentation • Plan drive configuration • Prepare work area and take precautions A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    39. Jumper Settings A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    40. Jumper Settings (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    41. Jumper Settings (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    42. Mounting the Drive in the Bay A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    43. Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    44. Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    45. Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    46. Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    47. Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    48. Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    49. Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

    50. If the Bay Is Too Large A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition