Underground Physics Research in Finland Jukka Maalampi Department of Physics University of Jyväskylä and Helsinki Institute of Physics RECFA Helsinki 8-9 October 2010
Underground Physics projects • An Underground Cosmic Ray Experiment EMMA (Experiment with MultiMuon Array) in Pyhäsalmi mine. • Under construction and testing. • Megaton observatory for neutrinos and proton decay (LAGUNA). • In Design Study phase. Pyhäsalmi mine a candidate location.
CUPP - Center of Underground Physics in Pyhäsalmi mine • Administrated by University of Oulu. Supported by University of Jyväskylä. • Research activity since 2000 • Pyhäsalmi mine is the deepest operating hard rock mine in Europa (1444 m). Known ore reserves until ca 2018. Operated by Inmet Mining Corporation, Canada
Radon migration in the rock 2000-2001 China University of Geophysics Investigation of Neutron Multiplicity Khlopin Radium Institute of St. Petersburg MUG 2000-2002 Muons UnderGround. Measured muon flux at different depths down to 210 m MUD 2004-2005 Movable Underground Detector. Measured muon flux down to 1490 m Small scale pilot experiments
EMMA – Experiment with Multi-Muon Array • Experiment for studying the knee-area of the cosmic ray energy spectrum via multi-muon events • Recycled LEP-DELPHI drift chambers & small scale scintillators (manufac-tured by IHEP, Protvino) • Under construction at the depth of 75 m, to be completed in 2011. Total detector area 300 m2 • Funded mainly by EU through the RegionalDevelopment Fund (ERDF) ~300 k€/yr. Funding also from the Academy of Finland and universities and grants from private foundations. Total funding so far ~2 M€. Scintillators 0.7 M€, drift chambers ~0 k€.
The concept • Measures the laternal distribution of muons which depends on the chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays. • Novelty: only the high-energy muons created close to the primary cosmic ray reach the detector • Direction sensitivity < 1 degree
EMMA Collaboration T. Enqvist, J. Joutsenvaara, P. Kuusiniemi, T. Räihä, J. Sarkamo University of Oulu, Finland T. Kalliokoski, K. Loo, M. Slupecki, W.H. Trzaska, A. Virkajärvi University of Jyväskylä, Finland L. Bezrukov, L. Inzhechik, B. Lubsandorzhiev, V. Petkov, V. Volchenko, A. Yanin RAS/INR, Moscow, Russia H. Fynbo University of Århus, Denmark PhD-students underlined The Finnish EMMA team (+ summer students) U. Jyväskylä and U. Oulu
Scientific Advisory Board • Tiina Suomijärvi (Orsay), chair • Leonid Bezrukov (INR, Russian Academy of Sciences) • Anatoly Erlykin (Durham/LPI, Moscow) • Andreas Haungs (Karlsruhe)
LAGUNALarge Apparatus for Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics • Design study 2009-2011 (FP 7, 1.7 M€) • 9 countries, 28 institutions, ~100 members • Finland: U. Jyväskylä, U. Oulu, Kalliosuunnittelu Oy Rockplan (rock engineering), ~10 persons involved, EU funding 0.24 M€. Salaries from other sources (Universities, foundations, Rockplan). • Pyhäsalmi mine a candidate location (6 other) • 3 detector options: GLACIER (LiAR), LENA (LScin), MEMPHYS (WC) • Technical feasibility study done (~1200 pages)
ASPERA Roadmap To be updated soon.
Scientific goals • Long/Short Baseline neutrino physics • CP violation • Mass hierarchy • CERN-Pyhäsalmi offers a LBL (2300 km ≈ ”magic baseline”) not considered elsewhere in the world • CERN-Fréjus offers a SBL (130 km) not considered elsewhere in the world • Proton decay (testing GUTs) • Solar neutrinos • Supernova neutrinos (new&old) • Geoneutrinos
Test run in spring 2010 A 29 track event in station C