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Motivation in Sport. September 10, 2002. Motivation. One of the single most important themes in all of psychology Widely researched in sport & exercise What factor(s) lead us to engage in the behaviors that we do? WHY??. Motivation - Definitions. Very complex concept--hard to define

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motivation in sport

Motivation in Sport

September 10, 2002

  • One of the single most important themes in all of psychology
  • Widely researched in sport & exercise
  • What factor(s) lead us to engage in the behaviors that we do?
  • WHY??
motivation definitions
Motivation - Definitions
  • Very complex concept--hard to define
  • Force that directs effort/energy/persistence toward participatory choices
  • The direction & intensity of behavior (Gill, 1986)
motivation terms
Motivation Terms
  • Intrinsic motivation
    • Motivation derived from an internal source
  • Extrinsic motivation
    • Motivated by some outside force
  • What is the “why” of motivation
why s of motivation
“Why’s” of Motivation
  • Individual differences factors
  • Social context
  • Interaction
individual differences
Individual Differences
  • Physical maturity (Malina, 1988)
  • Parental beliefs about, expectations of, sport
  • Goal structures
  • Cognitive maturity
  • Socialization history
social context
Social Context
  • Reward structures
  • Coaching styles
  • Sociocultural influences (Hayashi, 1995)
  • Environmental factors
    • Presence of others
  • Leadership styles
  • Combined effect of personal & situational factors
  • Lewin (1936) B = f(P, E)
  • Basis of all interactionist beliefs
why s of motivation1
“Why’s” of Motivation
  • Individual differences factors
  • Social context
  • Interaction
optimal motivational profile
Optimal Motivational Profile
  • Self-discipline
  • Enjoyment
  • Realistic self-confidence
  • Attitude toward failure
  • Goal-directed
  • All skills that may be taught & are possessed by elite
  • 3 important points: cognitions, effects of rewards, affective components
participatory motives
Participatory Motives
  • Beginning point of motivation research in sport
  • Why do people stop participating or decide to continue?
  • Initial studies were not based on theories
  • Primarily conducted with youth sport
participation discontinuation motives
Participation/Discontinuation Motives
  • Fairly consistent set of motivational factors
  • Adolescents & children indicate that several factors influence participation decisions
  • Minimal differences found between factors
    • Age, gender, experience level, sport type
  • Vast majority of studies conducted in US
theory based approaches to motivation
Theory-Based Approaches to Motivation
  • Competence Motivation (Harter, 1978, 1981)
  • Achievement Goal (Nicholls, 1984)
  • Cognitive Evaluation (Deci, 1975; Deci & Ryan, 1985)
  • Sport Commitment (Scanlan et al., 1993)
  • Expectancy-Value (Eccles & Harold, 1993)
  • Attribution (Weiner, 1979)
harter s competence motivation theory 1978 1981
Harter’s Competence Motivation Theory (1978, 1981)
  • Most commonly used motivational theory in sport (Horn & Amorose, 1998)
  • Studies have used Harter’s theory to address affective reactions (Brustad, 1988; Brustad & Weiss, 1987), coaching behaviors (Black & Weiss, 1992), and parental influences (Babkes & Weiss, 1999)
competence motivation theory
Competence Motivation Theory
  • Extension of White’s Effectance Motivation Theory (1959)
  • Need to demonstrate competence in achievement situations guides motivational processes
competence motivation theory1
Competence Motivation Theory
  • Motivational processes are influenced by a variety of factors
    • individual’s self-perceptions of possibility for future success
    • perceptions of situational control
    • affective reactions to participation
    • significant others
    • expectations for reinforcement
competence motivation theory2
Competence Motivation Theory
  • Three main domains for achievement: cognitive (academic), social (peer relationships), and physical (sports and outdoor games)
  • Demonstrated competence in different areas may result in different impacts to self
competence motivation theory3
Competence Motivation Theory
  • Successful performance in valued domains may result in feelings of positive affect (e.g., satisfaction)
  • Socializing agents play important role in development of this positive affect and intrinsic motivation
    • anticipate reinforcement may occur again
    • encourages positive reactive feelings
harter s competence motivation theory 1978 19811
Harter’s Competence Motivation Theory (1978, 1981)
  • “A bright, scholarly student with little talent in sports may well perceive himself as cognitively competent, but relatively incompetent with regard to his physical skills. To the extent that athletic prowess is valued as his particular school...this particular child’s perceived competence in the area of social skills may also be relatively low” (Harter, 1978, p.58).
preferences for sources of competence information
Preferences for Sources of Competence Information
  • Developmental shift in preference for socializing agents occurs
  • Parents are initial socializing agents
  • Peers begin to increase in importance around age 10 and continue to increase with age
competence motivation
Competence Motivation
  • Cognitive theory
  • Significant others
  • Achievement domains
  • Results in different affects
expectancy value theory eccles harold 1991
Expectancy-Value Theory (Eccles & Harold, 1991)
  • Expectancy theory of motivation (Vroom, 1964)
  • Motivation comes from three types of beliefs
expectancy value
Expectancy Value
  • Expectancy
    • Belief that one’s effort will result in effective performance
  • Instrumentality
    • Belief that one’s performance will be rewarded
  • Valence
    • Perceived value of the rewards to the individual
expectancy value theory
Expectancy Value Theory
  • Belief that efforts will translate into success?
  • High skill level child, no longer needs to work?
  • Hard work, good performance, why still poorly motivated?
parental influence
Parental Influence
  • Valence (value) determined by parents
  • Influence on decisions to engage, intensity of effort, and child’s actual performance level
  • Studies show children’s participation is related to parental beliefs about child’s physical competence
implications for parents
Implications for Parents
  • Early years--determine what activities are most valued
  • Specialization years, parents facilitate & provide opportunities
  • Should create reasonable, congruent expectations
  • Failure to do so may result in anxiety & tension