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Decolonization and the Decline of the European World Order. Chapters 33 & 34 . INDIA. India. Pakistan. British India 1947. Sri Lanka. Bangladesh. A.O. Hume in the center- “The Rebel in the Raj”. The British Government took full control of India away from the East India Company in 1858.
Chapters 33 & 34
British India 1947
The British Government took full control of India away from the East India Company in 1858
•Appealed to Hindus
•Imprisoned then Exiled by Britain
•His removal opened the way for moderates like Gandhi, Jinnah & Nehru
•Self styled mystic and guru for appeal to the masses
•Practiced non-violent civil disobedience adapted from American Henry David Thoreau. He called this satyagraha “truth force”
• Salt March of 1931
• Arrested many times
• Stressed the importance of Indian economic self- sufficiency
•Assassinated by a Hindu extremist in 1948
“Mahatma” Gandhi became a folk hero and symbol of Indian Nationalism
•Less ‘mystical’ nationalist leader
•First Prime Minister of independent India
•Seen as a successor to Gandhi
•Government of India Act 1935
•Quit India Movement 1942
•Churchill advocated keeping India
•Labour Government elected in 1945
•Muslim majority Pakistan advocated by Muhammad Ali Jinnah
•Formal transfer of power 1947
•Led to massive population shifts and internal strife
•Jammu & Kashmir STILL (2010) in dispute
The Partition of South Asia:The Formation of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka
1st Prime Minister of Israel David Ben Gurion 1886-1973
PLO Leader Yasser Arafat 1929-2004
Zionism, the need for a Jewish Homeland preferably in Palestine
The Balfour Declaration promised British assistance in establishing a Jewish Homeland
Rejected by Palestinians
1949 Borders of the ‘New’ country of Israel
Israel, France and Britain attacked Egypt in October-November 1956 following Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez Canal. Israel occupied Sinai.
Coordinated UK, France & Israel Attack Against Egypt
Six-Day War: Before the warFrom 1948 to 1967, the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, was ruled by Jordan. During this period, the Gaza Strip was under Egyptian military administration. Israeli troops captured Egypt's Sinai peninsula during the 1956 British, French and Israeli military campaign in response to the nationalization of the Suez Canal. The Israelis subsequently withdrew and were replaced with a UN force. In 1967, Egypt ordered the UN troops out and blocked Israeli shipping routes - adding to already high levels of tension between Israel and its neighbors.
Preemptive War: Israel Attacks Egypt, Syria & Jordan
Six-Day War: After the warIn a pre-emptive attack on Egypt that drew Syria and Jordan into a regional war in 1967, Israel made massive territorial gains capturing the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula up to the Suez Canal. The principle of land-for-peace that has formed the basis of Arab-Israeli negotiations is based on Israel giving up land won in the 1967 war in return for peace deals recognizing Israeli borders and its right to security. The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt as part of the 1979 peace deal with Israel.
Surprise attack against Israel by Egypt & Syria
Israel Pushes back and regains all territories shown.
Final Peace is Negotiated by US President Jimmy Carter at Camp David in 1978
Signing the Camp David Peace Accords in 1979: L-R Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, US President Jimmy Carter & Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Began
Cromer’s administration of Egypt benefitted local elites at the expense of workers and farmers.
•Hunting accident gone very bad
•Overreaction by the British led to feeling of oppression by Egyptians
•Backlash led to limited British reforms
Gallows erected to execute villagers
•Revolt in 1919
•Formation of Wafd Party
•Free Officers, 1930s nationalistic
•British withdraw to Suez Canal Zone 1936
•Khedival Regime retained (under British influence)
•Military Coup & Social Revolution led by Nasser allied with Muslim Brotherhood 1952
Gamal Abdul Nasser in power 1952-1970
food staples regulated
forced British from Canal zone (1956)
Used boycotts and strikes.
Ultimately successful 1957.
South Africa: Gained independence from the British Empire in stages 1910, 1931 & 1961
Apartheid: Separateness, an official policy of racial separation & discrimination
Under Apartheid, whites had all the power & privileges.
African National Congress : founded in 1912 to fight for the rights of blacks in South Africa & other white settler societies in Southern Africa
•Jailed for 20 Years for opposing Apartheid
•Headed African National Congress
•Released form Prison (1990)
•Served as President of South Africa (1994-1999)
New South Africa Flag 1994: To represent the various background of ALL citizens
Flag adopted in 1980 after the Islamic Revolution of 1979
Flag of the Pahlavi Dynasty 1925-1979
Mostly near the Persian Gulf
Khomeini returns to Iran from exile on February 11, 1979.
“When the devil leaves, the angel returns!”
Long Shadow of the Ayatollah:
-Time Magazine Cover 1980s
-President Ahmadinejad (2005-Present) gives a speech with an image of the Ayatollah in the background
USA backs Saddam Hussein’s Iraq for being neither Communist nor Islamist
“Nobody else (particularly Iran and Arab countries) should have nuclear weapons except Israel, says Bush.” ~Hassan Bleybel 10/23/03
Western Opinions are VERY NEGATIVE