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Decolonization and the Decline of the European World Order. Chapters 33 & 34 . INDIA. India. Pakistan. British India 1947. Sri Lanka. Bangladesh. A.O. Hume in the center- “The Rebel in the Raj”. The British Government took full control of India away from the East India Company in 1858.

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slide3

INDIA

India

Pakistan

British India 1947

Sri Lanka

Bangladesh

slide6

B. G. Tilak

1856-1920

•Nationalist Leader

•Appealed to Hindus

•Imprisoned then Exiled by Britain

•Extremist

•His removal opened the way for moderates like Gandhi, Jinnah & Nehru

slide7

•Western-educated lawyer

•Self styled mystic and guru for appeal to the masses

•Practiced non-violent civil disobedience adapted from American Henry David Thoreau. He called this satyagraha “truth force”

• Salt March of 1931

• Arrested many times

• Stressed the importance of Indian economic self- sufficiency

•Assassinated by a Hindu extremist in 1948

Mohandas Gandhi

slide9

Jawaharlal Nehru

•Less ‘mystical’ nationalist leader

•First Prime Minister of independent India

•Seen as a successor to Gandhi

slide10

Indian Independence & Partition

•Government of India Act 1935

•Quit India Movement 1942

•Churchill advocated keeping India

•Labour Government elected in 1945

•Muslim majority Pakistan advocated by Muhammad Ali Jinnah

•Formal transfer of power 1947

•Led to massive population shifts and internal strife

•Jammu & Kashmir STILL (2010) in dispute

The Partition of South Asia:The Formation of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka

slide12

ISRAEL

1st Prime Minister of Israel David Ben Gurion 1886-1973

PLO Leader Yasser Arafat 1929-2004

slide13

Theodor Herzl:

Zionism, the need for a Jewish Homeland preferably in Palestine

slide16

1947 UN Partition Plan

Rejected by Palestinians

1949 Borders of the ‘New’ country of Israel

slide17

1956 Sinai War

Israel, France and Britain attacked Egypt in October-November 1956 following Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez Canal. Israel occupied Sinai.

Coordinated UK, France & Israel Attack Against Egypt

slide18

1967 “6-Day War”

Six-Day War: Before the warFrom 1948 to 1967, the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, was ruled by Jordan. During this period, the Gaza Strip was under Egyptian military administration. Israeli troops captured Egypt's Sinai peninsula during the 1956 British, French and Israeli military campaign in response to the nationalization of the Suez Canal. The Israelis subsequently withdrew and were replaced with a UN force. In 1967, Egypt ordered the UN troops out and blocked Israeli shipping routes - adding to already high levels of tension between Israel and its neighbors.

Preemptive War: Israel Attacks Egypt, Syria & Jordan

slide19

1967 “6-Day War”

Six-Day War: After the warIn a pre-emptive attack on Egypt that drew Syria and Jordan into a regional war in 1967, Israel made massive territorial gains capturing the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula up to the Suez Canal. The principle of land-for-peace that has formed the basis of Arab-Israeli negotiations is based on Israel giving up land won in the 1967 war in return for peace deals recognizing Israeli borders and its right to security. The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt as part of the 1979 peace deal with Israel.

slide21

Yom Kippur War 1973

Surprise attack against Israel by Egypt & Syria

Israel Pushes back and regains all territories shown.

Final Peace is Negotiated by US President Jimmy Carter at Camp David in 1978

slide22

Signing the Camp David Peace Accords in 1979: L-R Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, US President Jimmy Carter & Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Began

slide25

EGYPT

Sadat 1970-1981▲

Mubarak 1981-2011►

Nasser 1952-1970

slide26

Cromer’s administration of Egypt benefitted local elites at the expense of workers and farmers.

LORD CROMER

slide27

Dinshawai Incident 1906

•Hunting accident gone very bad

•Overreaction by the British led to feeling of oppression by Egyptians

•Backlash led to limited British reforms

Gallows erected to execute villagers

slide28

Egyptian Independence

•Revolt in 1919

•Formation of Wafd Party

•Free Officers, 1930s nationalistic

•British withdraw to Suez Canal Zone 1936

•Khedival Regime retained (under British influence)

•Military Coup & Social Revolution led by Nasser allied with Muslim Brotherhood 1952

Gamal Abdul Nasser in power 1952-1970

land redistribution

free education

food staples regulated

forced British from Canal zone (1956)

slide29

Sadat 1970-1981

  • Reduced importance of the military
  • Encouraged capitalism & foreign investment
  • Encouraged education and growth of the middle class
  • Negotiated Peace with Israel
  • Assassinated by rogue elements in the Egyptian military (1981)
  • Mubarak 1981-2011
  • Continued Sadat’s policies & reforms but seen as corrupt
  • Some electoral reforms, maintained dictatorial power
  • USA Ally in “War on Terror”
  • Ousted by popular uprising
slide33

Kwame Nkrumah Led the Former Gold Coastto Independence

Educated abroad.

Schoolteacher.

Preached nonviolence.

Used boycotts and strikes.

Ultimately successful 1957.

slide36

Kenyan Independence: 1963

  • London educated Jomo Kenyatta provided strong nationalist leadership.
  • Mau Mau Rebellions made up of Kikuyufarmers weaken British settlers opposition.
slide37

Algeria

  • French settlers foughtfiercely to keep Algeria a French colony.
  • DeGaulle realized afterthe war that France could not hold onto Algeria by force.
  • Independence came in 1962.
slide40

Apartheid: Separateness, an official policy of racial separation & discrimination

Racial Groups:

Black: 80%

White: 9%

“Coloured” 9%

Asian 2%

Under Apartheid, whites had all the power & privileges.

slide41

African National Congress : founded in 1912 to fight for the rights of blacks in South Africa & other white settler societies in Southern Africa

slide42

Nelson Mandela

b. 1918

•Jailed for 20 Years for opposing Apartheid

•Headed African National Congress

•Released form Prison (1990)

•Served as President of South Africa (1994-1999)

slide45

Iran

Flag adopted in 1980 after the Islamic Revolution of 1979

Flag of the Pahlavi Dynasty 1925-1979

slide47

Oil Resources:

Mostly near the Persian Gulf

slide48

Mohammad Mossadegh

  • Became Prime Minister in 1951.
  • Nationalized the foreign oil companies.
  • Got rid of corrupt military officials.
  • Was toppled in a coup aided by the America CIA in 1953.
  • The Shah of Iran returns to power.
slide49

Shah Reza Pahlavi r. 1953-1979

  • Institutes Western reforms & ties with the West .
  • But, the majority of his people live in poverty.
  • Brutal suppression of dissidents  SAVAK
  • BUT Firmly Anti-Communist so he retains US support.
slide51

Reasons for the fall of the Shah of Iran 1960s-1970s

  • The Shah spent the oil profits for top of the line American military hardware.
  • Little money to reinvest back into the Iranian economy.
  • Religious leaders angry with the Shah for too much “Westernization.”
  • Government corruption.
  • The Shah’s constitutional violations of the basic human rights of his citizens.
slide53

Shah’s Opponents:

  • Oil Workers
  • Students & Intellectuals
  • Nationalists
  • Muslim
  • Clerics
slide54

Ayatollah KhomeiniLeads the Revolution

Khomeini returns to Iran from exile on February 11, 1979.

Q7

slide55

Ayatollah Khomeini(r. 1979-1989)

  • 1902 – 1989.
  • Became an Islamic scholar (studied in Qom).
  • Began to speak out against the Shah in the 1960s.
  • Arrested and imprisoned several times by the Shah.
  • Deported in 1978 & went to France.
slide56

Iran Revolutionary Poster

“When the devil leaves, the angel returns!”

slide60

The Khomeini Revolution

Long Shadow of the Ayatollah:

-Time Magazine Cover 1980s

-President Ahmadinejad (2005-Present) gives a speech with an image of the Ayatollah in the background

slide62

Secretary Rumsfeld& Saddam Hussein: 1983

USA backs Saddam Hussein’s Iraq for being neither Communist nor Islamist

slide64

A view of Iran’s nuclear power from Al-Jazeerah

“Nobody else (particularly Iran and Arab countries) should have nuclear weapons except Israel, says Bush.” ~Hassan Bleybel 10/23/03

slide65

MahmoudAhmadinejad

2005-Present

Western Opinions are VERY NEGATIVE