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Decolonization and the Decline of the European World Order. Chapters 33 & 34 . INDIA. India. Pakistan. British India 1947. Sri Lanka. Bangladesh. A.O. Hume in the center- “The Rebel in the Raj”. The British Government took full control of India away from the East India Company in 1858.

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British India 1947

Sri Lanka



B. G. Tilak


•Nationalist Leader

•Appealed to Hindus

•Imprisoned then Exiled by Britain


•His removal opened the way for moderates like Gandhi, Jinnah & Nehru


•Western-educated lawyer

•Self styled mystic and guru for appeal to the masses

•Practiced non-violent civil disobedience adapted from American Henry David Thoreau. He called this satyagraha “truth force”

• Salt March of 1931

• Arrested many times

• Stressed the importance of Indian economic self- sufficiency

•Assassinated by a Hindu extremist in 1948

Mohandas Gandhi


Jawaharlal Nehru

•Less ‘mystical’ nationalist leader

•First Prime Minister of independent India

•Seen as a successor to Gandhi


Indian Independence & Partition

•Government of India Act 1935

•Quit India Movement 1942

•Churchill advocated keeping India

•Labour Government elected in 1945

•Muslim majority Pakistan advocated by Muhammad Ali Jinnah

•Formal transfer of power 1947

•Led to massive population shifts and internal strife

•Jammu & Kashmir STILL (2010) in dispute

The Partition of South Asia:The Formation of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka



1st Prime Minister of Israel David Ben Gurion 1886-1973

PLO Leader Yasser Arafat 1929-2004


Theodor Herzl:

Zionism, the need for a Jewish Homeland preferably in Palestine


1947 UN Partition Plan

Rejected by Palestinians

1949 Borders of the ‘New’ country of Israel


1956 Sinai War

Israel, France and Britain attacked Egypt in October-November 1956 following Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez Canal. Israel occupied Sinai.

Coordinated UK, France & Israel Attack Against Egypt


1967 “6-Day War”

Six-Day War: Before the warFrom 1948 to 1967, the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, was ruled by Jordan. During this period, the Gaza Strip was under Egyptian military administration. Israeli troops captured Egypt's Sinai peninsula during the 1956 British, French and Israeli military campaign in response to the nationalization of the Suez Canal. The Israelis subsequently withdrew and were replaced with a UN force. In 1967, Egypt ordered the UN troops out and blocked Israeli shipping routes - adding to already high levels of tension between Israel and its neighbors.

Preemptive War: Israel Attacks Egypt, Syria & Jordan


1967 “6-Day War”

Six-Day War: After the warIn a pre-emptive attack on Egypt that drew Syria and Jordan into a regional war in 1967, Israel made massive territorial gains capturing the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula up to the Suez Canal. The principle of land-for-peace that has formed the basis of Arab-Israeli negotiations is based on Israel giving up land won in the 1967 war in return for peace deals recognizing Israeli borders and its right to security. The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt as part of the 1979 peace deal with Israel.


Yom Kippur War 1973

Surprise attack against Israel by Egypt & Syria

Israel Pushes back and regains all territories shown.

Final Peace is Negotiated by US President Jimmy Carter at Camp David in 1978


Signing the Camp David Peace Accords in 1979: L-R Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, US President Jimmy Carter & Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Began



Sadat 1970-1981▲

Mubarak 1981-2011►

Nasser 1952-1970


Cromer’s administration of Egypt benefitted local elites at the expense of workers and farmers.



Dinshawai Incident 1906

•Hunting accident gone very bad

•Overreaction by the British led to feeling of oppression by Egyptians

•Backlash led to limited British reforms

Gallows erected to execute villagers


Egyptian Independence

•Revolt in 1919

•Formation of Wafd Party

•Free Officers, 1930s nationalistic

•British withdraw to Suez Canal Zone 1936

•Khedival Regime retained (under British influence)

•Military Coup & Social Revolution led by Nasser allied with Muslim Brotherhood 1952

Gamal Abdul Nasser in power 1952-1970

land redistribution

free education

food staples regulated

forced British from Canal zone (1956)


Sadat 1970-1981

  • Reduced importance of the military
  • Encouraged capitalism & foreign investment
  • Encouraged education and growth of the middle class
  • Negotiated Peace with Israel
  • Assassinated by rogue elements in the Egyptian military (1981)
  • Mubarak 1981-2011
  • Continued Sadat’s policies & reforms but seen as corrupt
  • Some electoral reforms, maintained dictatorial power
  • USA Ally in “War on Terror”
  • Ousted by popular uprising

Kwame Nkrumah Led the Former Gold Coastto Independence

Educated abroad.


Preached nonviolence.

Used boycotts and strikes.

Ultimately successful 1957.


Kenyan Independence: 1963

  • London educated Jomo Kenyatta provided strong nationalist leadership.
  • Mau Mau Rebellions made up of Kikuyufarmers weaken British settlers opposition.


  • French settlers foughtfiercely to keep Algeria a French colony.
  • DeGaulle realized afterthe war that France could not hold onto Algeria by force.
  • Independence came in 1962.

Apartheid: Separateness, an official policy of racial separation & discrimination

Racial Groups:

Black: 80%

White: 9%

“Coloured” 9%

Asian 2%

Under Apartheid, whites had all the power & privileges.


African National Congress : founded in 1912 to fight for the rights of blacks in South Africa & other white settler societies in Southern Africa


Nelson Mandela

b. 1918

•Jailed for 20 Years for opposing Apartheid

•Headed African National Congress

•Released form Prison (1990)

•Served as President of South Africa (1994-1999)



Flag adopted in 1980 after the Islamic Revolution of 1979

Flag of the Pahlavi Dynasty 1925-1979


Oil Resources:

Mostly near the Persian Gulf


Mohammad Mossadegh

  • Became Prime Minister in 1951.
  • Nationalized the foreign oil companies.
  • Got rid of corrupt military officials.
  • Was toppled in a coup aided by the America CIA in 1953.
  • The Shah of Iran returns to power.

Shah Reza Pahlavi r. 1953-1979

  • Institutes Western reforms & ties with the West .
  • But, the majority of his people live in poverty.
  • Brutal suppression of dissidents  SAVAK
  • BUT Firmly Anti-Communist so he retains US support.

Reasons for the fall of the Shah of Iran 1960s-1970s

  • The Shah spent the oil profits for top of the line American military hardware.
  • Little money to reinvest back into the Iranian economy.
  • Religious leaders angry with the Shah for too much “Westernization.”
  • Government corruption.
  • The Shah’s constitutional violations of the basic human rights of his citizens.

Shah’s Opponents:

  • Oil Workers
  • Students & Intellectuals
  • Nationalists
  • Muslim
  • Clerics

Ayatollah KhomeiniLeads the Revolution

Khomeini returns to Iran from exile on February 11, 1979.



Ayatollah Khomeini(r. 1979-1989)

  • 1902 – 1989.
  • Became an Islamic scholar (studied in Qom).
  • Began to speak out against the Shah in the 1960s.
  • Arrested and imprisoned several times by the Shah.
  • Deported in 1978 & went to France.

Iran Revolutionary Poster

“When the devil leaves, the angel returns!”


The Khomeini Revolution

Long Shadow of the Ayatollah:

-Time Magazine Cover 1980s

-President Ahmadinejad (2005-Present) gives a speech with an image of the Ayatollah in the background


Secretary Rumsfeld& Saddam Hussein: 1983

USA backs Saddam Hussein’s Iraq for being neither Communist nor Islamist


A view of Iran’s nuclear power from Al-Jazeerah

“Nobody else (particularly Iran and Arab countries) should have nuclear weapons except Israel, says Bush.” ~Hassan Bleybel 10/23/03




Western Opinions are VERY NEGATIVE