CHAPTER 10. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES Piaget’s Preoperational Stage – approximately two to seven years of age – operations are internalized sets of actions that are highly organized and conform to certain rules and principles of logic.
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COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGESPiaget’s Preoperational Stage – approximately two to seven years of age – operations are internalized sets of actions that are highly organized and conform to certain rules and principles of logic.
Information Processing – Memory plays a key role in cognitive development.
Confirming the pregnancy – Fetal life begins with the fertilization of the ovum, with pregnancy length calculated from the first day of the woman’s last menstrual period.
The Three Trimesters: First – initial three months when prenatal organ systems are formed – physical and emotional adjustment for the mother; Second – middle months, continued growth of fetus, mother’s physical adjustment to the change; Third – uterus expands, some leg problems with blood flow, physically exhausting.
The Expectant mother’s nutrition, weight gain, and exercise are monitored for her health and that of her baby. Weight gain should be between 2.2 pounds per month and 6.6 (excessive). Appropriate levels of vitamins and adequate exercise all contribute to a healthy balance.
Culture and Prenatal care are also considerations that affect the fetus. Industrial countries generally have lower numbers of low-birthweight babies, with the United States at 7 percent; however, this is higher among African-American infants.
Cultural beliefs also impact prenatal care – In India midwives play a large role in the birthing process. Other cultures rely on ancient medicinal practices and/or strong familial cooperation.