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Chapter 13 Europe Today

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    1. Chapter 13 Europe Today

    2. Living in Europe A. Changing Economies 27 countries in the European Union Eastern Europe still trying to catch up 1. European Union Started as an economic alliance One currency, central bank, and a common foreign policy Even have courts and a Parliament The largest economy in the world Worked together to achieve this

    3. A. Changing Economies cont. 2. Eastern Europe Over 40 years of communism Lack modern technology, pollution controls, skilled workforce, experience, and money Difficult to catch up B. Agriculture and Industry Very fertile land Advanced methods and equipment Produces as much as the U.S. with the land More Europeans are farmers than any other job Varies country to country

    4. B. Agriculture and Industry cont. 1. Economic Expansion Birthplace of modern industry Made it powerful Heavy industry: manufacturing of machinery and equipment for factories and mining Mineral wealth helped France and Germany lead the way Light Industry: Consumer goods Netherlands and Denmark Service Industry: Switzerland

    5. B. Agriculture and Industry cont. 2. Food Production Leads the world in barley, oats, potatoes, rye, and sugar beet production Also wheat, citrus, dates, figs, olives, and grapes Dairy, cattle, and sheep Europe produces most of its food Imports exotic foods

    6. B. Agriculture and Industry cont. 3. Farming Techniques Organic farming Mixed farming Farm cooperatives Collective farms in communism Wages and some crops State farms in communism Only wages 4. Manufacturing France, U.K., Italy, Poland, and Germany the topes Steel and automobiles Western Eur.: private owned Eastern Eur: state owned, focused on heavy industry

    7. B. Agriculture and Industry cont. 5. Services and Trade 60% in west in service industries Banking, insurance, and international companies U.K., Switzerland, Belgium Tourism Easier to travel in the EU

    8. C. Communication and Transportation 1. Communication Intelsat system Eurovision and Intervision Phone service varies Books, magazines, and newspapers used No more censorship in the east 2. Highways and Railways Highways link all major cities Autobahn RR tracks in the world TGVs: trains a grande vitesse, average 170 mph

    9. C. Communication and Transportation cont. 3. Major Transportation Centers Major airports in the big cities Europe handles more than half the worlds international shipping Ports: London, Rotterdam, Le Havre, Genoa 4. Waterways Rhine and the Danube Kiel Canal cuts across the Jutland peninsula Main-Danube Canal connects the North Sea to the Black Sea

    10. II. People and Their Environment A. Environmental Pollution 1. Acid rain Air pollution combined with rain Damages forests, wildlife, and buildings 5 million acres of forests destroyed in Germany In snow and meltwater Kills fish Acid deposition erodes buildings

    11. A. Environmental Pollution cont. 2. Air Pollution Extremely bad in former communist countries Poland, Romania, and Czech Rep. No pollution controls Ruins food Houses, trees, grass, and animals turned black from soot Kids sent away to get healthy

    12. A. Environmental Pollution cont. 3. Global Warming Greenhouse effect warming the Earths temperature Melt the ice caps, flooding? Climate change? 4. Water Pollution Mediterranean used to dump millions of gallons of waste Sea takes almost a century to renew itself Rivers carry waste to seas Oil and garbage decrease tourism Also polluted rivers, Lake Balaton, and drinking water

    13. B. Efforts to Reduce Pollution 1. Concern for the Environment Desire to protect the national heritage Strong measures to reduce greenhouse gases Want to preserve wild areas 2. Cleanup Efforts Emissions controls Resistant coatings on buildings Less dumping and more water treatment Strict laws against pollution Mediterranean

    14. B. Efforts to Reduce Pollution cont. 3. Plans for the Future New sewage systems All levels of govt. pitching in EU pledging funds to cleanup the Mediterranean by 2015 EU involved in eastern Europe now too