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The Role of GNSS in the GLAs’ Future Service Provision. Dr Sally Basker Director of Research & Radionavigation General Lighthouse Authorities of the United Kingdom & Ireland. International Information Sub-Committee, Civil GPS Service Interface Committee, Manchester, 7 May 2006. Content.

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the role of gnss in the glas future service provision

The Role of GNSS in the GLAs’ Future Service Provision

Dr Sally BaskerDirector of Research & RadionavigationGeneral Lighthouse Authorities of the United Kingdom & Ireland

International Information Sub-Committee,Civil GPS Service Interface Committee,Manchester, 7 May 2006



The GLAs

Shipping trends and e-Navigation

The Role of GNSS

Securing e-Navigation Benefits

the general lighthouse authorities of the united kingdom and ireland

Northern Lighthouse board

Trinity House

Commissioners of Irish Lights

The General Lighthouse Authorities of the United Kingdom and Ireland

The tri-GLA Research & Radionavigation directorate works on behalf of all three GLAs

building on a track record of success
Building on a track record of success
  • The GLAs shared mission is is the delivery of a reliable, efficient and cost effective AtoN service for the benefit and safety of all mariners
  • The GLAs operate in a “user pays” cost-recovery environment based on “Light Dues”
  • Light dues have reduced by 50% in real terms in the last 10 years
    • This has been achieved by improving the cost-effectiveness of physical aids to navigation (lights and floating aids)
  • Taking this further means delivering a radionavigation dividend
    • cost-savings that result from the introduction of radionavigation services and their take-up in the maritime sector
ships are getting larger
Ships are getting larger

In June 2006 the company Royal Caribbean plans to launch a vessel of 158,000 tons, with accommodation for 3,600 passengers

Source: MAN B&W Diesel A/S. Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels.

ships are getting faster
Ships are getting faster

The SuperSeaCat is more than 100 metres long, carries 800 passengers plus 175 cars, and operates at 38 knots

Source: MAN B&W Diesel A/S. Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels.

traffic is becoming more congested
Traffic is becoming more congested

On average, a ship passes through the Dover Straits every 3 minutes

e navigation making safe navigation easier and cheaper
e-Navigation - making safe navigation easier and cheaper
  • The cost-effective collection, integration and display of maritime information onboard and ashore by electronic means, to enhance berth-to-berth navigation and related services, for safety and security at sea, and protection of the marine environment
  • Widespread support at IMO and IALA
  • Delivery
    • GNSS underpinned by fail-safe supplementary position signals
    • integrated displays – communications – information management – alarm prioritisation – shore-based monitoring & intervention
  • It will enable new applications
    • virtual AtoNs for the early marking of wrecks or other hazards before they are marked physically with wreck-marking buoys
gnss for navigation
GNSS for navigation
  • GNSS will be the dominant e-Navigation sensor in the maritime domain
  • Current GPS and DGPS is likely to continue to be the mainstay of many ships for many years
    • more than 30% of all ships are older than 20 years
  • The L1 and L5 frequencies will offer GPS/Galileo interoperability for maritime users

Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 2005 Review of Maritime Transport

gnss for situational awareness
GNSS for situational awareness
  • GNSS is being used for situational awareness in two ways
    • Automatic Identification Systems (AIS)
    • Long Range Identification and Tracking
  • AIS uses GPS for timing and positioning
    • ship borne and shore base stations
    • ship borne and shore-based situational awareness
    • used as an AtoN (e-ANSI, synthetic AIS, virtual AtoNs)
  • LRIT uses GPS for positioning
    • mainly shore-based situational awareness for security and safety
gnss for timing
GNSS for timing
  • GPS is used for timing synchronised or sequenced lights
    • some AtoN lights are less conspicuous when viewed against light-polluted waterfront backgrounds
    • options include changing the characteristics of individual lights (e.g. flashing blue/yellow) or groups of lights (e.g. synchronise or sequence)
    • important safety issue
  • GPS is also used for timing in AIS user equipment & base stations

Courtesy: Sealite

gps is a key enabling technology and a target for jamming


GPS is a key enabling technology and a target for jamming
  • Many of the GLAs current and future e-Navigation services are enabled by GPS
  • GPS is vulnerable and is a target
    • for people who do not want to be tracked
    • for people who want to disrupt society more generally
  • IGEB, February 2001
    • GPS provides many benefits to civilian users. It is vulnerable, however, to interference and other disruptions that can have harmful consequences. GPS users must ensure that adequate independent backup systems or procedures can be used when needed
reverting from e navigation to physical atons
Reverting from e-Navigation to physical AtoNs
  • e-Navigation systems will be designed with high levels of availability and reliability to support one-man-bridge and other innovative operations
  • Reverting from e-Navigation based solely on GNSS to physical AtoNs will become less straightforward
  • Under some circumstances navigational safety might actually worsen
  • A second, complementary and dissimilar, multi-modal independent PNT service is needed to realise the full benefits of e-Navigation
eloran the right supplementary positioning signal for e navigation
eLoran – the right supplementary positioning signal for e-Navigation
  • A single source of positioning and timing is unacceptable in the marine domain
  • A Marine navigation and surveillance need a mixture of positioning and timing systems and e-Navigation needs a second, complementary and dissimilar, multi-modal independent PNT service is needed
  • eLoran is the only service that fulfils the requirement
  • PNT – Position, Navigation and Time
  • Including radar transponders – Racons
  • SBAS has independent time but not P or N
eloran makes sense
eLoran makes sense
  • The eLoran objective
    • the provision of an international, globally-standardised eLoran PNT (position, navigation and time) multi-modal service, based on interoperable multi-regional components both as a complement to GNSS and as a stand-alone backup in case of failure
  • eLoran must make sense to governments, service providers and users
    • improving safety
    • meeting IMO A.915 general navigation requirements
    • improving the cost-effectiveness of AtoN service provision
eloran will secure key gnss benefits for e navigation
eLoran will secure key GNSS benefits for e-Navigation
  • eLoran will secure the important GNSS benefits for e-Navigation and AtoN service provision
  • Increased operational flexibility and improved safety from new operational concepts
  • Greater throughput of freight
  • Virtual AtoNs
    • earlier marking of wrecks
    • traffic separation schemes
    • marking shifting channels and sand banks
  • Reduced cost of AtoN service provision
  • Insurance against intentional or unintentional interference
eloran at enc
eLoran at ENC
  • Briefing presentations
    • Monday – Shipping trends, e-Navigation, eLoran White Paper
    • Tuesday – Harwich trials, container tracking, French experience
    • Wednesday – GLA R&RNAV procurements in 2006/7
  • Papers
    • Mitch’s bit
    • GLA paper