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Physical Activity for Americans

Physical Activity for Americans

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Physical Activity for Americans

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  1. Physical Activity forAmericans Fuzhong Li, Ph.D. Oregon Research Institute

  2. Focus • To understand • What is physical activity (PA)? • Current PA status • Health risks of being sedentary • Research – Scientific Evidence

  3. Terminology and DefinitionsPhysical Activity “Bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above the basal level” Source: USDHHS (1996)

  4. 1988-2007 No Leisure Time Physical Activity Nationwide Source: www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/stats/leisure_time.htm

  5. Levels of Physical Activity Source: apps.nccd.cdc.gov/PASurveillance/StateSumV.asp

  6. Source: http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/PASurveillance/StateSumResultV.asp

  7. Thailand Source: Thailand Health Profile – 2004-2006

  8. Prevalence (%) of Physical Inactivity In University Students from 23 Countries Black bar = male Shaded bar = female

  9. Prevalence (%) of Recommended Frequency (6 times in the past 2 weeks) Leisure-time PA in University Students from 23 Countries Black bar = male Shaded bar = female

  10. Proportion of Students Who knew of Association Between PA and Heart Disease Black bar = male Shaded bar = female

  11. Health Risks of Physical Inactivity • Risk of coronary heart disease • People with inactive and unfit almost twice as likely to die from heart disease as more active and fit people • Risk of being overweigh or obese, • Which in turn, associated with certain cancers, osteoarthritis, and back problems • Risk of developing type 2 diabetes • Risk of lowering bone density - osteoporosis • Certain Cancer

  12. State of Health • 13.5 million people have coronary artery disease • 1.5 million people have a heart attack per year • 8 million people have type 2 diabetes • 95,000 people are diagnosed with colon cancer each year • 250,000 people suffer a hip fracture per year • 50 million people have high blood pressure • More than 60 million people are overweight

  13. Fat AmericanPercentage of people who are overweight or obese

  14. Men and FitnessThe risk of death in unfit and fit men

  15. Weighty WomenRelative risk of death in unfit and fit women

  16. Age and ActivityRelative risk of death in people 60 and older

  17. Percentage of Disease Attributable to Physical Inactivity

  18. DiabetesTotal Prevalence of Diabetes Among People aged 20 Years or Older (2005) • Age 20 years or older: 20.6 million; 9.6% • Age 60 years or older: 10.3 million; 20.9% • Men: 10.9 million; 10.5% • Women: 9.7 million: 8.8%

  19. Who Exercise?Leisure-time Physical Activity among Adults (2005)

  20. Who Exercise?Overall Physical Activity among Adults (2005)

  21. Recommended Physical Activity Levels - Adults • Moderate-intensity aerobic (endurance) physical activities (i.e., brisk walking, bicycling, vacuuming, gardening, or anything else that causes small increases in breath or heart rate) for a minimum of 30 min on five days each week OR • Source: Haskell et al. (2007), Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

  22. Recommended Physical Activity Levels • Vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activities (i.e., running, aerobics, heavy yard work, or anything else that causes large increases in breathing or heart rate) for a minimum of 20 min on three days each week • Source: Haskell et al. (2007), Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

  23. Insufficient Physical Activity • Doing more than 10 minutes total per week of moderate or vigorous-intensity lifestyle activities (i.e., household, transportation, or leisure-time activity), but less than the recommended level of activity Source: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/stats/definitions.htm

  24. Inactivity • Less than 10 minutes total per week of moderate or vigorous-intensity lifestyle activities (i.e., household, transportation, or leisure-time activity). Source: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/stats/definitions.htm

  25. Understand PA Intensity • METs and MET-minutes • MET – Metabolic equivalent • A ratio of the rate of energy expended during an inactivity to the rate of energy expended at rest • A 1 MET = rate of energy expenditure while at rest • A 4 MET activity expends 4 times the energy used by the body at rest • If a person does a 4 MET activity for 30 min., this person has done 4 MET x 30 min = 120 MET-min (or 2.0 MET-hours) of PA

  26. Understand PA Intensity • Test Question – • If I did a 8 MET activity in 15 minutes, how many MET-minutes?

  27. Understand PA Intensity • MET-Minutes and Health Benefits • Health benefits of PA depend on total weekly energy expenditure due to PA. • In scientific terms, this range is 500 to 1,000 MET-minutes per week • 3.3 METS for 150 min per week ≈ 500 MET-min per week • 13.4 MET for 75 min. per week ≈ 1000 MET-min per week • Activity of 500 MET-min. a week results in a substantial reduction in the risk of premature death, but activity of MORE than 500 MET-minutes a week is necessary to achieve a substantial reduction in the risk of breast cancer

  28. Understand PA IntensityAbsolute Intensity • Light-intensity: 1.1 MET to 2.9 METs • Moderate-intensity: 3.0 – 5.9 METs • Waling at 3 miles per house requires 3.3 METs of energy expenditure • Vigorous-intensity: 6.0 METs activity or more • Running at 10 minutes per mile (6 mph) is a 10 MET activity

  29. Understand PA IntensityRelative Intensity Relative to fitness, with the intensity expressed in terms of a percent of a person’s (1) maximal heart rate, (2) heart rate reserve, or (3) aerobic capacity reserve. Moderate: 40 and 59% of aerobic capacity reserve (or 5 or 6 effort on a scale of 0-10) Vigorous: 60 to 84% of reserve (or 7 or 8 of the scale)

  30. PA Guidelines for AmericansChildren and Adolescents (aged 6-17) • Children and adolescents should do 1 hour (60 minutes) or more of PA every day. • Most of the 1 hour or more a day should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic PA. • As part of their daily physical activity, children and adolescents should do vigorous-intensity activity on at least 3 days per week. They also should do muscle-strengthening and bone-strengthening activity on at least 3 days per week. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/stats/definitions.htm

  31. PA Guidelines for AmericansAdults (aged 18-64) • Adults should do 2 hours and 30 minutes a week of moderate-intensity, or 1 hour and 15 minutes (75 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, preferably spread throughout the week. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/stats/definitions.htm

  32. PA Guidelines for AmericansAdults (aged 18-64) • Additional health benefits are provided by increasing to 5 hours (300 minutes) a week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity, or 2 hours and 30 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of both. • Adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities that involve all major muscle groups performed on 2 or more days per week. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/stats/definitions.htm

  33. PA Guidelines for AmericansOlder Adults (aged 65+) • Older adults should follow the adult guidelines. If this is not possible due to limiting chronic conditions, older adults should be as physically active as their abilities allow. They should avoid inactivity. Older adults should do exercises that maintain or improve balance if they are at risk of falling. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/stats/definitions.htm

  34. PA Guidelines for AmericansAdults With Disabilities • Follow the adult guidelines. If this is not possible, these persons should be as physically active as their abilities allow. They should avoid inactivity. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/stats/definitions.htm

  35. PA Guidelines for AmericansChildren and Adolescents with Disabilities • Work with the child's health care provider to identify the types and amounts of physical activity appropriate for them. When possible, these children should meet the guidelines for children and adolescents—or as much activity as their condition allows. Children and adolescents should avoid being inactive. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/stats/definitions.htm

  36. PA Guidelines for AmericansPregnant and Postpartum Women • Healthy women who are not already doing vigorous-intensity physical activity should get at least 2 hours and 30 minutes (150 minutes) of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week. Preferably, this activity should be spread throughout the week. Women who regularly engage in vigorous-intensity aerobic activity or high amounts of activity can continue their activity provided that their condition remains unchanged and they talk to their health care provider about their activity level throughout their pregnancy. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/stats/definitions.htm

  37. Health Benefits of Physical ActivityStrong Evidence for Adults and Older Adults Lower risk of: early death, heart disease, stroke, Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, adverse blood lipid profile, metabolic syndrome, colon and breast cancers Prevention of weight gain Weight loss when combined with diet Improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness Prevention of falls Reduced depression Better cognitive function (older adults)

  38. Health Benefits of Physical ActivityModerate to Strong Evidencefor Adults and Older Adults Better functional health (older adults) Reduced abdominal obesity

  39. Health Benefits of Physical ActivityStrong Evidence for Adults and Older Adults Weight maintenance after weight loss Lower risk of hip fracture Increased bone density Improved sleep quality Lower risk of lung and endometrial cancers

  40. Health Benefits of Physical ActivityStrong Evidence for Children and Adolescents Improved cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular fitness Favorable body composition Improved bone health Improved cardiovascular and metabolic health biomarkers

  41. Health Benefits of Physical ActivityModerate Evidence for Children and Adolescents Muscle strengthening Bone strengthening Reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression Boosting energy Keep healthy weight Enhanced school performance Better friendship with peer friends

  42. Messages • Whatever your age physical activity plays an important part in your health and well-being • Your bones, joints, and muscles – especially your heat – will stay younger if you keep them busy

  43. Going From Fat to Fit • Do: Yielding boons from stronger muscles to a healthier heart to enhanced brain function • Don’t: carrying serious health risks, e.g., • Coronary artery disease • Strokes • High blood pressure • Osteoporosis • Overweight

  44. Fit and Health – Some Facts • Colon cancer is about 40% more likely to occur in a person who does not exercise than in someone who is active • People who don't exercise have an almost 60% greater risk of developing osteoporosis than those who are active • Physically inactive people have a 45% greater chance of developing coronary artery disease than active people

  45. Fit and Health – Some Facts • Only 31.1% of people 18 and older in the united States engage in any regular leisure-time physical activity • Physical activity, which increases bone size and density, helps to prevent osteoporosis and bone loss associated with aging • Muscle coordination, reaction time and strength, all of which are necessary for balance and stability, improve with exercise

  46. Fit and Health – Some Facts • High Density Lipoprotein (good cholesterol) that reduces CAD risk, increases an average of 4.6% with exercise • Working out increases the heart’s endurance and the volume of blood it can pump, drastically improving overall heart function • Exercise can decrease falls resulting in injury by 30% in the elderly, and can reduce the risk of hip fracture 20 to 40%

  47. Fit and Health – Some Facts • Adults can gain as many as two hours of life expectancy for every hour of regular, vigorous exercise • By keeping the arteries flexible and free of plaque, exercise lowers blood pressure and helps prevent dangerous blood clots • Poor diet / physical inactivity is second only to smoking in lifestyle factors contributing to the national’s top killers, including CAD

  48. Fit and Health – Some Facts • Aerobic exercise prompts the release of mood-lifting hormones that promote a sense of well-being and reduce stress • In studies of women already being treated for breast cancer, moderate activity cut rates of recurrence and death in half

  49. So, Do Something About itAn Activity Pyramid • Cut down on sedentary activities • Sitting, watching TV, working or playing at the computer • Exercise 3+ times a week to stretch and strengthen your muscles • Take stretch breaks, TOGA/Tai Chi, weight lifting, tension bands, push ups/curl ups • 3-5 times a week to give your heart and lungs a workout • Biking/hiking, running/jogging, brisk walking, basketball • Make it a daily routine • Walk to work or walk whenever you can, take the stairs