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Animal Kingdom. SB3.b Compare how structures and functions vary between the 6 kingdoms (Animals) . General Characteristics of the Kingdom :. All animals are multicellular . Their cells group together to form tissues which then group to form organs which further group into organ systems.
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Animal Kingdom SB3.b Compare how structures and functions vary between the 6 kingdoms (Animals)
General Characteristics of the Kingdom: • All animals are multicellular. Their cells group together to form tissues which then group to form organs which further group into organ systems. • Animals are heterotrophs, meaning they do not produce their own food. • They are diploid organisms and most reproduce sexually, although some reproduce asexually. • Animals produce haploid gametes through meiosis. A diploid zygote is formed at fertilization. The zygote undergoes mitosis and cell differentiation to grow into a multi-celled body.
General Characteristics of the Kingdom: • Some animals provide parental care, but most do not. • Animals are capable of movement at some stage in their lives. • They are classified as either invertebrates, without a backbone or vertebrates, with a backbone. • Have collagen, a protein found only in animals and found in skill bone, fingernails, and hair.
General Characteristics of the Kingdom: • Are grouped by body plan. Bilateral symmetry – animals that can be divided equally along one line only, like humans. • Radial symmetry– animals with body parts arranged in a circle around a central axis, such as starfish.
Invertebrates: Sponges, Cnidarians, Worms, Mollusks, Echinoderms, and Arthropods Invertebrates are animals without a backbone: they are the most abundant group. They are all multicellular. They can reproduce asexually and sexually.
Sponges (phylum Porifera) • Are the simplest animal, they have no organs. • An adult sponge is sessile, meaning it cannot move. The larval form is different than the adult and is motile, capable of movement. • Sponges are found in both fresh and salt water. They are filter-feeders, which means they eat by straining food particles.
Cnidarians (phylum Cnidaria) • Includes jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals. • They have 2 body forms:Polyps – a tube with the mouth and tentacles facing upward .Medusa – umbrella-shaped with the mouth and tentacles facing downward. Medusa Polyps
Cnidarians (phylum Cnidaria) • They are more complex than sponges and have specialized features, such as nematocysts on a jelly fish (stinging cells used to defend themselves and to obtain food.) • Most Cnidarians, like the jellyfish, reproduce sexually.
Worms • Flatworms(phylum Platyhelminthes) have thin ribbon-like bodies. They reproduce both asexually and sexually. They are hermaphroditic, which means that each worm possesses both male and female reproductive organs.
Worms • Roundworms (phylum Nematoda) can live anywhere and are abundant in soil, snow fields, deserts, and hot springs. They are parasites and scavengers. They reproduce sexually and are dioecious, meaning they have either male or female reproductive organs but not both.
Worms • Earthworms(phylum Annelida) live in soil and feed off of it. Their wastes, called castings, provide nourishment for the soil helping plants to thrive. They reproduce sexually and are hermaphrodites. Their bodies are divided into sections called segmentation. This aids in their movement, and each section performs specific functions. Earthworms can replace parts of their bodies through regeneration.
Worms • The fluke, a kind of flatworm, burrows its way into the bloodstream where it travels to the intestine and bladder. It then lays eggs which create irritation and scar tissue. The eggs are then pass through the body through urine and feces where they are picked up by their second host, the water snail.
Worms • Trichinella, a roundworm, is responsible for trichinosis, contracted by eating undercooked pork. It causes severe pain, fever, and weakness.
Worms • Hookworms, a roundworm, are found in soil and can live in improperly disposed feces. They burrow through skin and make their way to the intestine and attach themselves there. When attached to the intestine, they suck blood to obtain nourishment. An infestation of hookworms commonly results in blood loss, decreased energy, increased appetite, and anemia.
Mollusks (phylum Mollusca) • Include clams, oysters, squid, octopus, and snails. • They have soft bodies, and some have shells outside their bodies. They have a radula, a feeding organ that they scrap over their food. The hard teeth on the radula pick up the food particles.
Mollusks (phylum Mollusca) • Mollusks reproduce by gametes. • They are found in fresh water, salt water, and land. They are eaten by many people around the world.
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Echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata) • Include starfish and sea urchins. • They are known for their spiny skin and can be found in salt water. The tiny plates are called ossicles.
Echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata) • They reproduce sexually and are capable of regeneration. • Echinoderms have specialized tube feet that allow them to climb rocks and are strong enough to pry open mollusk shells to obtain food. • When a starfish eats, it turns its stomach inside out, forcing it into the mollusk shell, and digests the animal externally. This Northern sea star, photographed in Massachusetts, is regenerating two lost arms. It will take over a year, but they will be good as new!
Arthropods (phylum Arthoropoda) • Include crustaceans, arachnids, and insects. • Anthropods have exoskeletons, a hard covering of the body providing support and protection made of chitin. It does not grow with the animal, so periodically, the animal sheds the exoskeleton, its body grows, and a new exoskeleton forms. They also haveappendages, an extension of an organism’s body, such as a wing or legs.
Class Crustacean • Class Crustacean – includes crayfish, lobster, shrimp, and crabs. They have hard pair of appendages called mandibles used to bite and crush food. Most live in salt water. Many are edible and have commercial importance. They reproduce sexually and hold developing eggs on the underside of their bodies until they hatch.
Class Arachnida • Class Arachnida – includes spiders, ticks, mites, and scorpions. Most live on land, and some have poison glands that will kill or harm their prey when bitten. Some spider bites and scorpion stings are harmful and even fatal to humans. Ticks are carriers of disease-causing bacteria and can transmit infection with their bite. Arachnids reproduce sexually and lay eggs.
Class Insecta • Insects are the most abundant of the animals and they inhabit many diverse ecosystems. Most have wings and are capable of flight. Insects are the only invertebrates with this ability. Some insects transmit disease, like some species of mosquitos. Insects reproduce sexually, and their life cycles consist of either complete or incomplete metamorphosis.
Metamorphosis is a series of stages of insect development. These stages include radical changes in structure and function. Complete metamorphosis consists of the egg, larva, pupa, and adult stages. When the larva hatches from the egg, it does not resemble the adult. It is not capable of reproduction; however, it is able to feed itself. During the pupa stage, the larva stops feeding and moving and often encases itself in a cocoon. During this time, its body changes drastically and emerges from the cocoon as an adult. Butterflies undergo complete metamorphosis.
Incomplete metamorphosis consists of the egg, nymph, and adult stages. They nymph looks like the adult but does not have wings and is not capable of reproduction. The nymph continues with development until it reaches the adult stage. Grasshoppers undergo incomplete metamorphosis.
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Vertebrates: Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia • Vertebrates – animals with a backbone, share these characteristics: a notochord, gill slits, and an endoskeleton.
Vertebrates are known as chordates and share 4 main characteristics. 1. Notochord– is a firm flexible rod that provides support and stability. It often changes into a vertebral column later in life. 2. Gill slits– openings used in respiration that lead to the outside of an animal’s body. The gill slits take oxygen into the body and release carbon dioxide.
Vertebrates are known as chordates and share 4 main characteristics. 3. Hallow nerve cord- that runs down along the back bone. 4. Tail– a tail extends beyond the anal opening and has muscles for movement. • All vertebrates have an Endoskeleton – is an internal skeleton composed of bones, cartilage, or both. It grows with the animals.
Class Osteichthyes (Bony fish) • Include sharks, rays, flounder, anchovies, bass, and catfish. • Fish are ectothermicor cold blooded. This means that the animal’s body temperature is not constant. Rather than being internally regulated, the animal’s body temperature changes when the environmental temperature changes. • They have a lateral line organ. This is a sensory organ that runs the length of the fish’s body on both sides and allows the fish to be very sensitive to pressure changes and to detect movement.
Class Osteichthyes (Bony fish) • Some fish have an air bladderto keep them buoyant, it is an air-filled sac inside the fish. It makes the fish essentially weightless so that amount of energy required for movement is reduced. • Some fish use external fertilization, this occurs when the female lays the eggs in the water, and the male fertilizes them with sperm. Others use internal fertilization, the eggs are fertilized by the male inside the female. In some fish, like sharks, the eggs hatch inside the female and she bears live young. Fish don’t provide parental care.
Class Amphibia • Include frogs, toads, and salamanders. • They have smooth, moist skin covered with mucus to retain water. • They are ectothermic.
Class Amphibia • They carry out part of their life cycle in the water and part on land. They lay eggs in water utilizing external fertilization, and the larvae hatch from eggs. The larvae live in the water until they undergo metamorphosis and change into adults. Amphibians do not provide parental care for their young. All vertebrates that live on land aretetrapods, that is, they have four limbs.
Class Amphibia • Amphibians are sometimes studied to determine the environmental health of an area. When pollutants are present, amphibians are the first animals to be affected since their skin provides little protection. The death of amphibians in an area indicates a high level of pollutants, this makes them known as indicator species
Class Reptilia • Includes lizards, snakes, turtles, and crocodiles • They have dry, scaly skinand are ectothermic. • They lay amniotic eggs that have their own water source to provide moisture and pressure stabilization. • Most reptiles use internal fertilization and lay eggs on land. Some have eggs that hatch inside the mother, and the embryos are born live. Reptiles do not provide parental care.
Class Aves (Birds) • Birds have many adaptation which allow them to fly. These adaptations include feathers and lightweight bones containing air pockets. • Birds also exhibit a single ovary and no bladder. • Birds also have a specialized chest bone, the keel, that sticks out and allows a greater surface area for flight muscles to attach. Not all birds fly though. • Ostriches and penguinsare examples of flightless birds.
Class Aves (Birds) • Birds are endothermic, or warm blooded, they maintain a constant body temperature. They have a rapid metabolism and feathers that act as insulators and help control body temperature. • Birds use internal fertilization and lay eggs in nests. Parents keep the eggs warm until they are ready to hatch, and then they provide parental care.
Class Mammalia • Mammals have the most complex brainsof any animals. • They are endothermic and have hair which conserves heat. Mammalian skin contains unique glands: mammary glandsthat produce milk to feed their young, sweat glands that secrete sweat to regulate body temperature and to rid the body of wastes, and sebaceous glandsthat secrete oils to lubricate hair and skin.
Class Mammalia • Mammals use internal fertilization, and the embryo develops inside the uterus of females. The uterus is a specialized structure inside the female’s body that allows the embryos to grow and develop while also providing protection.
Class Mammalia • Different groups of mammals have different reproductive methods. Some such as, Duck billed platypus still lay eggs. Kangaroos and opossums are marsupials, they have a pouch where the embryo develops. They begin development in the uterus because it is born live at an early stage of development , and then travels to the pouch. • Placental mammalssuch as humans, rodents, rabbits, bats, whales, porpoises, cats, dogs, horses, pigs, armadillos, monkeys, and apes develop in uterus and obtain nutrient through a placenta. A placenta is a specialized organ in the uterus that is rich in blood vessels for gas exchange and for waste removal. The placenta is attached to the embryo with an umbilical cordand is delivered when the embryo is delivered. Most mammals give birth to live young. All mammals give milk to their young and provide parental care for a long time.
Class Mammalia • Humans are the most highly developed mammals. Many other mammals have better eyesight or better sense of smell, but we have the most complex brain. Humans are capable of reasoning, speaking, planning, learning, and to some extent, controlling our futuresand the futures of other organisms.
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