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Uniscript: a Model for Persistent and Incremental Knowledge Storage. Adorjan Kiss, Joel Quinqueton LIRMM, Montpellier, France. Objective (a world to dream of). The knowledge of a person gathered and instantly accessible anytime by anyone.

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uniscript a model for persistent and incremental knowledge storage

Uniscript: a Model for Persistent and Incremental Knowledge Storage

Adorjan Kiss, Joel Quinqueton

LIRMM, Montpellier, France

objective a world to dream of
Objective (a world to dream of)
  • The knowledge of a person gathered and instantly accessible anytime by anyone.
  • Each piece of knowledge should be “true”. Its truth should be “guaranteed” by the author.
  • Each piece of knowledge should be unique.
  • Access to a piece of knowledge should be possible through any related piece of knowledge.

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personal knowledge representation
Personal Knowledge Representation
  • Knowledge representation in computers:
    • To be used in foreseen scenarios
    • Knowledge elements considered universally accepted (“information”).
  • The objective:
    • De-couple knowledge from expected usage.
      • A piece of knowledge can be recorded not only when its utility is certain. People may feel a piece of knowledge is important, without being able to explain why.
      • Record permanently.
    • Represent only knowledge that you are certain of. That is, you believe to have the least chances to become “invalidated” by time.

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what is everlasting knowledge
What is “everlasting” knowledge?
  • A seemingly obvious answer:
    • Perfect classifications
    • The unquestionable rules of our physical world.
  • The alternative answer:
    • Objects, events, facts that had a real existence.
    • That is, “situated” knowledge.
      • “Les theories passent, les grenouilles restent” (Theories pass, the frogs remain) - Jean Rostand
  • Ok, but these individual pieces of knowledge (the frogs) are countless. Can’t hope to represent everything. Which ones to choose?
    • Everything important for a person: see Memex.

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situated knowledge pieces
Situated knowledge pieces
  • Observer:
    • the person who contemplates the world
    • His attention is attracted by certain “phenomena” that he can delimit, identify an trace through a period of time.
  • Stance:
    • A delimitation (cut-out) from the world (space-time continuum) that presented an importance for the observer.
    • Its borders – in space, and time – are subjective
      • They can be fuzzy
      • The observer is not constrained to agree with anyone else about where he draws the borders.
    • It presents some regularities – the features allowing the observer to trace it – (hence the name “stance”)

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stancification
Stancification
  • What to stancify?
    • Final objective: progressively learn to store everything a human mind can represent and explicit.
  • How to select what to stancify next?
    • Lasting importance. A stance should be found interesting beyond a foreseen usage scenario.
    • Guidance by strength of belief. No surprise is expected that could contradict the reality of a stance.
    • Principle of uniqueness. Before recording a stance, make sure it is not already there.

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traditional knowledge storage
Traditional Knowledge Storage
  • Writing it in a language or communicative medium
    • Decompose into identifiable units
    • Serialize

ideas

terms

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stance network

Stance base

Stance network
  • Identify stances
  • Identify relations between stances
  • Build a stance network
    • Define the semantics of links

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everything is a stance
“Everything is a stance”
  • Individual objects
  • Parts of objects that can be delimited
  • States of objects
  • Individual events
  • Groups of stances (of the above) that share some regularities
    • The 4d interval corresponding to a stance is not necessarily contiguous: neither in time nor in space.

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stance as a 4d interval

space

t0

t1

time

Stance as a 4D interval
  • Compressed to 2D…
  • t0the beginning of the stance: when the observer considers it assumes its identity
  • t1 the end of the stance: the moment when the observer considers it looses its identity.
  • the shape: the stance could have moved and changed size, form, etc during its life
  • Note: a stance is not necessarily contiguous in space or time

Example: the apple tree near my window

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related stance examples

space

t0

t'

t''

t1

time

Related stance examples
  • State of a stance

Example: my apple tree in blossom during last summer

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related stance examples12

space

t0

t1

time

Related stance examples
  • Member (part) of a stance

Example: the root of my apple tree

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stances are finite
Stances are finite
  • Stances have a finite lifetime
    • Once a stance is “dead” (ended), it will never exist once again: death is a change in identity.
    • End of a stance: transformation into other stance(s) – identifiable by different criteria – or into something that cannot be delimited.
      • If a transformation of a stance is “reversible”, it can be seen as states (sub-stances) of a more generic stance.

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individuals groups and classes
Individuals, groups and classes
  • Groups as stances:
    • Finite groups are stances (whether they are countable, or not).
  • Classes as stances:
    • An observer can consider a class as a stance:
    • A class must be finite (not abstract):
      • The group of all individuals (instances) that the observer has found to belong to that class through his lifetime.
    • Classes cannot pre-exist before their instances.
      • Difference between artifacts and natural classes.
  • There is NO DIFFERENCE between individuals, groups and classes.

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uniscript a language for representing storing stances
Uniscript: a language for representing (storing) stances
  • Stances can be stored in a digital (i.e. numeric) memory:
    • Each stance is permanently associated to a memory location (number).
  • Stored stances can be connected through oriented links:
    • Containment: complete space-time inclusion
    • Transformation: causality – temporal precedence
    • Revision: exceptional modification in the identity of stances.

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representing a simple situation
Representing a simple situation

Today,

Today, I went swimming after work

I

went swimming

after

work

[2004-10-05] (#150)

Me (#1)

Working (# 21)

Swimming (# 32)

(# 152)

(# 151)

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incrementally augmenting the knowledge
Incrementally augmenting the knowledge

Today, I went swimming after work

I was driving from work to swimming

[2004-10-05] (#150)

Me (#1)

Working (# 21)

Swimming (# 32)

(# 152)

(# 151)

Driving (# 38)

(#153)

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ubook an implementation of a uniscript knowledge base as personal memory aid
Ubook: an implementation of a Uniscript knowledge base as personal memory aid
  • Structures for representing the knowledge graph
  • Methods for accessing knowledge pieces:
    • Storing and connecting stances
    • Browsing the network.
  • Computer-interpretable data (resource) layer for
    • Rendering stances – to help reconstitute the meaning of stances
    • Direct access to stances through indexed resources

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resources
Resources
  • Data packages that can be interpreted (rendered) by a computer:
    • Text, image, video, sound, etc.
    • DAC output (screen, speakers, printer, etc)
    • “Standard” rendering (decompression and decoding) methods:
      • Unicode (text), jpeg, wav, mp3, etc.

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stance resource association

Rendering

indexes

Stance base

Resource base

Retrieval

indexes

Stance-resource association

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text rendering
Text rendering
  • Important, but not fundamental
    • Stances are not equivalent with words (terms) of natural language
  • Allows indexation
    • Direct access to key stances
  • Quick rendering
    • Offers the possibility of immediate identification
  • Resource – stance associations are not definitive

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ubook system architecture
Ubook: system architecture
  • Implemented as a middle-layer
  • Core applications:
    • Rendering and browsing interface
    • Visual knowledge editing interface
  • Add-on applications:
    • Viewing and composing complex and/or recurring structures (stance configurations)
    • Engines generating overviews, transformations and batch processing
    • Reasoning applications to ease ensuring knowledge consistency, etc.

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an implementation on pda
An implementation on PDA
  • The rendering and browsing interface (Finder):
    • Text rendering of stances:
    • The standard format:
      • Stance number (ex. #127)
      • List of text resources
      • Eventually: recursive rendering of one or more levels of neighbors, e.g. Containers.
  • Example:
    • [#128: my nose –[#22: nose] –[#10: me]]

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connection editor
Connection editor
  • Visual interface for creating stances and connections
  • The workspace: setting up a stage
    • Set up actors: stances that are involved (ensure we know what are we are talking about)
    • Create new stances (after checking that they do not exist)
    • Associate stances with resources
    • Connect actors through the 3 possible link types.

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future work
Future Work
  • Inter-platform synchronization
  • Remote access to non-essential resources (URI)
  • Description language, frames, compressing recurring configurations

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from personal knowledge to the dream world after memex
From personal knowledge to the dream world (after Memex)
  • People will start storing their personal knowledge
  • Natural selection:
    • Some of them will store too greedily
      • will eventually loose control over their knowledge base (difficulties to retrieve and interpret their knowledge, redundancy will grow out of manageable limits).
    • Hopefully, some will find clever ways, configurations to store specific situations
      • These ways of representations (formulations or expressions) will be shared among people, and spread until some of them will eventually gain general acceptance.
  • Emergence of a language
    • when there will be a way of expression for most current situations from everyday life.

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extra slides events
Extra slidesEvents
  • Events have a duration in time – they can be stancified.
  • Several objects can take part in events, having different roles. How to connect them to event stance?
  • 3 types of events:
    • No preexisting stance
    • 1 preexisting stance
    • 2 preexisting stances

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events with no preexisting stance identified

R1

E

R2

space

R1

E

R2

time

t1

t2

Events with no preexisting stance identified
  • Origins (causes) of the event could not (were not interesting to) be identified

One or more stances can emerge as consequences of the event.

Uniscript

events with 1 preexisting stance identified

R1

R1

space

P1

P1

P1

E

R2

R2

R1

E

E

P1

E

R2

time

t1

t2

Events with 1 preexisting stance identified
  • a) The event makes the stance lose its identity (disappearance)

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events with 1 preexisting stance identified30

P1

R1

space

E

R2

P1

R1

P1

E

R2

time

t1

t2

Events with 1 preexisting stance identified
  • b) The event does not affect the stance’s identity (state)

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events with 2 preexisting stances identified

P1

R1

space

E

R2

P2

R1

P1

E

P2

R2

time

t1

t2

Events with 2 preexisting stances identified
  • a) Both stances lose their identities (fusion)

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events with 2 preexisting stances identified32

P1

space

R1

E

P2

P1

R2

R1

P1

E

P2

R2

time

t1

t2

Events with 2 preexisting stances identified
  • b) One of the stances loses its identity (absorption)

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events with 2 preexisting stances identified33

P1

P2

space

R1

E

P1

R2

R1

P1

E

P2

R2

P2

time

t1

t2

Events with 2 preexisting stances identified
  • c) Both stances keep their identity (interaction)

Uniscript