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Protists I & II. Lab 4 BIOL 171. Remember!: Classification System.  Saving for next week?. We’ll be looking at all of these! P rotists are everywhere in Eukarya ! “the junk drawer of the eukaryotes”. Ancestral Eukaryote. We’ll be looking at all of these!

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protists i ii

ProtistsI & II

Lab 4

BIOL 171


 Saving for next week?

We’ll be looking at all of these!

Protists are everywhere in Eukarya!

“the junk drawer of the eukaryotes”




We’ll be looking at all of these!

Protists are everywhere in Eukarya!

“the junk drawer of the eukaryotes”



6 kingdoms
6 Kingdoms
  • Plants (Plantae)
  • Animals (Animalia)
  • Fungi (Fungi)
  • Eubacteria
  • Archaeabacteria
  • Protista

These are considered

“qualitative” terms—

not correct science


lab study a alveolates
Lab Study A: Alveolates

Dinoflagellates: mixed dinoflagellates (live & wet mount), and Peridinium (wet mount) not in manual


Trypanosoma – prepared slides


Paramecium caudatum – (wet mount) in manual

lab study b stramenopiles
Lab Study B: Stramenopiles

Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) –

make wet mount

Also observe diatomaceous earth (the cell wall deposits from diatoms) – make wet mount and look at prepared slides

brown algae phaeophyta
Brown Algae (Phaeophyta)

Living: Ectocarpus and Sphacelaria

Preserved: Fucus and Laminaria

lab study c rhizaria different title from manual
Lab Study C: Rhizaria(different title from manual)
  • Foraminiferans - prepared slides
  • Radiolarians – prepared slides
think about
Think about…
  • Morphological characteristics
  • Ecology of the organism
  • How does the organism get around?
  • What role do they play in the ecosystem?
  • Do they have any economic value?
  • Where do they live?
  • Don’t know the answer?? It’s probably a great research question! Ask me about it.
protists 2

Protists 2

Laboratory 4 (still)

BIOL 171

what is red algae
What is red algae?
  • Eukaryotic
  • Photosynthetic
  • NOT plants
  • Most are aquatic
lab study d red algae rhodophyta
Lab Study D: Red Algae (Rhodophyta)
  • Simplest is single celled, but most have a macroscopic, multicellular body form
  • Autotrophic(photosynthetic)– manufactures its own organic nutrients from inorganic carbon sources
  • Contain chlorophyll a and accessory pigments phycocyanin and phycoerythrin
  • Not all are red! Many green, black, even blue, depending on the depth in the ocean they grow
preserved specimens
Preserved specimens


coralline algae


coralline algae living rock
Coralline algae – “living rock”
  • Extremely important role in the ecology of coral reefs: sea urchins, fish, and mollusks eat them (herbivore enhancement).
  • Create microhabitats that protect invertebrates from predation.
  • Cell walls composed of calcium carbonate – this allows it to fossilize
  • Economic importance: soil conditioners, food additive for livestock, water filtration, medical vermifuge (stopped late in 18th century), preparation of dental bone implants
economic uses
Economic Uses
  • Agar – polysaccharide extracted from the cell wall of red algae, used to grow bacteria and fungi
  • Carrageenan– extracted from red algae cell walls, used to give the texture of thickness and richness to foods such as dairy drinks and soups.
  • Porphyra(or nori) – seaweed wrappers for sushi, billion-dollar industry!
lab study e green algae chlorophyta
Lab Study E: Green Algae (Chlorophyta)
  • unicellular motile and non-motile, colonial, filamentous, and multicellular – GREAT DIVERSITY
  • Live primarily in freshwater
  • Share many characteristics with land plants
    • Storage of starch, presence of chlorophylls a and b, photosynthetic pathways, and organic compounds called flavonoids
  • Most botanists support the hypothesis that plants evolved from green algae
living specimens
Living Specimens







Daughter colonies

lab study f amoebozoans
Lab Study F: Amoebozoans

Amoeba proteus

  • Pseudopodia – temporary extensions of amoeboid cells, function in moving and engulfing food
lab study g slime molds mycetozoa
Lab Study G: Slime Molds (Mycetozoa)
  • Protists which use spores to reproduce
  • Heterotrophic – requires carbon in organic form, cannot manufacture it’s own
  • Feed using phagocytosis
  • Suggests they descended from unicellular amoeba-like organisms
  • Two types: plasmodial and cellular (we will be observing plasmodial type today)
physarum slime mold
Physarum(slime mold)
  • Plasmodial stage – vegetative stage that consists of a multinucleate mass of protoplasm (no cell walls), feeds on bacteria as it creeps along the surface of moist logs or dead leaves
  • Fruiting bodies – reproductive structures that produce spores
physarum plasmodial stage
Physarum (plasmodial stage)

Is slime mold smarter than Japan's railway engineers?check it out!