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Hinduism. Hinduism. No Historical Founder Started in India Based in the Vedas Initial focus on sacrifices Later on devotion to a god A lot of diversity Wide variety of beliefs and practices. Eastern vs. Western. No specific beginning

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hinduism1
Hinduism
  • No Historical Founder
  • Started in India
  • Based in the Vedas
  • Initial focus on sacrifices
    • Later on devotion to a god
  • A lot of diversity
    • Wide variety of beliefs and practices
eastern vs western
Eastern vs. Western
  • No specific beginning
  • No single deity (god) that is responsible for creation
  • Sacred Texts
    • No identified author
    • No identified origin
the vedas
The Vedas
  • Wide variety of literature
    • Instructions for sacrifice
      • Offered by priests to various gods.
      • Understood to result in children, wealth or the attainment of heaven
    • Creation stories
    • Philosophical teachings
  • No authors
  • Said to exist eternally
  • Said to be source of creation
other sacred texts
Other Sacred Texts
  • Ramayana
    • Focuses on Vishnu
  • Mahabharata
    • Focuses on Krishna
  • Bhagavad Gita
    • Dharma
  • Modern focus on these texts rather than the vedas.
hindu gods
Hindu Gods
  • Described in various creation stories
  • Most Hindus are henotheistic
    • Worship one god, but don’t deny existence of others
    • Deities appear in different forms with similar characteristics
  • Primary deities often selected based on family belief or region of India
  • Primary deities include:
    • Shiva
    • Vishnu
    • Devi
hindu gods1
Hindu Gods
  • Often other deities worshipped
    • Examples include
      • Hanuman
      • Ganesha
  • Some offerings at set times
    • Completed by professional priests
  • Puja
    • Prayer
    • Chanting
    • Offerings
      • Fruit, Rice, Clothing
other beliefs
Other Beliefs
  • Reincarnation
    • Moksha
  • Karma
  • Atman
  • Samsara
  • Dharma
sacred places
Sacred Places
  • India
    • Locations such as Mountains and Rivers associated with gods.
  • Temples
    • Located throughout the world
current state of affairs
Current State of Affairs
  • Castes
    • Social ladder
    • Born into a caste
    • Affects many aspects of life
  • Rural vs Urban areas
confucius
Confucius
  • Born in 551 B.C.
  • died in 479 B.C.
confucianism1
Confucianism
  • Concerned primarily with restoring social stability and order
    • What is the basis of a stable, unified, and enduring social order?
  • a system of social and ethical philosophy
    • “only when character is cultivated are our families regulated; only when families are regulated are states well governed.”
confucianism2
Confucianism
  • li
    • rituals, norms, institutions, or mores
    • the outer, conforming aspect of Confucianism
  • ren
    • humaneness, love, kindness, benevolence, or virtue
    • the inner, reforming aspect of Confucianism
slide17
Li
  • Rites, ceremonies, proper behavior, and good manner
  • performed in good faith, with everyone keeping to his or her proper role
  • universal harmony
  • no need for physical sanctions, laws, or punishment
slide18
Ren
  • Relationship between "two persons”
  • extension of filial piety to all human beings
  • each role in the hierarchy of social relations had clearly defined duties
    • reciprocity or mutual responsibility
five relationships
Five relationships
  • father-child
  • ruler-subject
  • husband-wife
  • elder brother-younger brother
  • friend-friend
confucianism3
Confucianism
  • Persecuted in Qin Dynasty
    • 221 B.C. - 206 B.C.
  • promoted by later rulers
confucianism4
Confucianism
  • reinforced by the civil examination system
    • “keju”: civil examination
    • from 605 to 1905