Animals Review For Test: *Animal Diversity Lab *Animal Dissections: - Starfish - Clam Grasshopper (studyguide only – no dissection) Expect to identify anatomy – study pictures and notes!
Starfish Questions • How does a starfish feed? • Read figure 24 • Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinodermata 3. 6 common echinoderms: Starfish, sea star, brittle star, sand dollar, sea lily, sea cucumber, sea urchin 4. 7000 species of echinoderms
5. Live in marine benthic environments (typically salt water, in the bottom of the sea floor) 6. Triploplastic – having 3 germ layers Where is the A) endo, B) meso, C) ectoderm ? 7. A coelom = a true body cavity (lined with mesoderm) 8. Water vascular system – takes in water for movement, feeding (filter feeders!), respiratory and excretory 1 3 2
9. Echinoderm = spiny skin 10. Pedicellaria – pincer-like elements to ward off ectoparasites (what are they…) 10. Skeleton made of many plates called ossicles, made of calcium carbonate 11. No brain – a decentralized nervous system 12. Regeneration – regrow limbs; will break off a body part if attacked (lose a limb, save a life) 13. Digestive organs: mouth, stomach, intestine, anus
14. Dioecious – each sex is separate organism, but can’t really tell sexes apart 15. Young starfish have bilateral symmetry; adults have radial symmetry *Study the Starfish Anatomy Coloring Picture *Starfish Lab – Know all the parts/structures and what they do/why they are important
External Starfish Anatomy 1 • Madreporite plate* • Tube feet* • Mouth* • Spiny skin/Dermal spines • Central disc • Eye spots • Anus 2 3 4 6 5
Internal Anatomy 5 4 • Stomach • Digestive gland • Gonads • Ring canal • Radial canal • Ampullae – connect to… • Dermis 3 ? 2 1 6
Mollusk Questions: • Mollusk ex: snail, clam, slug, squid, octopus, oyster 2. Clam – AKA – Mussel 3. All mollusks share 1 unifying characteristic – Soft bodied 4. 4 Major regions – mantle, visceral mass, head, food (Which did you see? What do they do?)
5. Mantle – sheath of skin surround the space of the clam, attached to shell 6. Secretes for shell, houses respiratory organs (which are…?) and houses visceral mass 7. Visceral mass contains: Stomach, intestines, gonads, mouth 8. Food is used for – locomotion Octopus/squid have siphon for jet propulsion
9. Radula – toothed tongue for scraping food 10. Open circulatory system – blood is not contained in vessels but circulates via the heart through open sinuses 11. Gills – for breathing underwater 12. Clams filter feed – water flows in past gills, mouth; small particles swept into mouth 13. Shells- formed by secretions of the mantle 14. Shell’s inner nacreous layer – composed of calcium carbonate, can form pearls
15. Hermaphroditic – both sexes in 1 organism 16. Octopus is able to learn and remember 17. Mollusk senses: touch, taste, smell, sensing of chemicals, sight 18. Live in moist environments – marine or freshwater 19. For food (calamari, escargot, oysters, scallops), jewelry, medicine, also negative because they are invasive species – zebra and quagga mussels are invading Great Lakes
Clam External Anatomy Function of shell – protection, movement Bivalve – two valves (two shells hinged together) Oldest/newest part of shell? How do you know? How does it open/close? 4. 1. 3. 2.
Clam Internal Anatomy 2. 1. Adductor muscles Foot Visceral mass Gills Mantle Heart Gonads Stomach Intestines Mouth? 3. 4. 6. 5. 8. 7.
Grasshopper Questions • Phylum Arthropoda • HUGE characteristic – Exoskeleton • Molting – shed exoskeleton periodically • Jointed appendages on legs, mouth parts, antennae • Have bilateral symmetry (what have the other organisms had?) • Cephalization – development of distinct head region
7. Have a COMPLETE digestive system – beginning (mouth) and end (anus) 8. Arthropods are divided into 6 classes – LOTS of diversity in this phylum! 9. Arthropods are the most abundant phylum of the animal kingdom
10. Holometabolous (complete) metamorphosis – egg, larva, pupa, adult 11. Hemimetabolous (incomplete) metamorphosis – egg, nymph, adult 12. Grasshoppers are… Hemimetabolous
13. Beneficial contributions: pollinators, food source for birds/small mammals, vital part of healthy ecosystems (where in food chain?) 14. Harmful? – eat crops (locust swarms), spend lots of money on pesticides 15. There are 2.5 – 3 BILLION insects in the world, and most of them are BENEFICIAL
Grasshopper Anatomy • External anatomy only • Study your picture
Animal Kingdom Lab • Didn’t get these recorded in gradebook – so please bring back Tuesday!
What to know: Animal Kingdom Lab • Names of each phylum (or class) - goes with what kind of animal? • Ex: Phylum Platyhelminthes is commonly referred to as what? • Flatworms • Can go back to book (Ch 25.2) or online • Sheets on tables are in a powerpoint on wiki