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Ancient Civilizations: India. Maurya & Gupta Empires. Geography & Environment. The Geography. On which continent is India located? Asia; India is a subcontinent of Asia. Wildlife. The Geography.

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ancient civilizations india

Ancient Civilizations:India

Maurya & Gupta Empires

the geography
The Geography
  • On which continent is India located?
  • Asia; India is a subcontinent of Asia
the geography1
The Geography
  • On which river did the ancient Indians settle?
  • The Indus & Ganges Rivers
mauryan empire
Mauryan Empire
  • Established in 322 BC by the great Indian military leader, Chandragupta Maurya
mauryan empire1
Mauryan Empire
  • Politically united North India for the first time ever
  • Created a highly effective government; included tax collection & the enforcement of laws
mauryan empire2
Mauryan Empire
  • In 269 BC Asoka, Chandragupta’s grandson, became emperor of the Mauryan Empire
mauryan empire3
Mauryan Empire
  • After many years of violent conquest, Asoka felt remorseful
mauryan empire4
Mauryan Empire
  • Converted to Buddhism & ruled by Buddha’s teaching of “peace to all beings”
  • Spread Buddhism throughout India & other parts of Asia via missionaries
asoka s rock edicts
Asoka’s Rock Edicts
  • Laws carved on rock pillars were placed throughout the empire
  • Stressed concern for other human beings
gupta empire
Gupta Empire
  • After the fall of the Mauryan Empire India experienced 500 years of chaos
  • Finally in AD 320 a strong leader known as Chandra Gupta rose to power in Northern India
gupta empire1
Gupta Empire
  • 320 AD to 535 AD
  • India’s “Golden Age,” or the flourishing of arts & sciences
gupta s golden age
Gupta’s Golden Age
  • Achievements in Mathematics:
  • Principles of algebra
  • Infinity & Zero
  • Value of Pi
  • Arabic numerals  1, 2, 3…
gupta s golden age1
Gupta’s Golden Age
  • Achievements in Science:
  • Earth is round
  • Identified 7 planets
  • Invented medical instruments, performed operations, set bones, etc.
quick review mauryan or gupta3
Quick Review: Mauryan or Gupta?

First to unite Northern India

quick review mauryan or gupta4
Quick Review: Mauryan or Gupta?

Creation of 0 and Arabic Numbers

1 the caste system
The Caste System:

System of social hierarchy within India

5 different castes (social classes)

1) The Caste System





Nobles, warriors, royalty

Caste System

Merchants & skilled workers

Servants, peasants, slaves, laborers

Untouchables: Outcasts = outside caste system

caste purity
Members of higher castes were considered more pure

Untouchables were considered spiritually polluted; ignored by members of other castes

Caste Purity?
caste roles
Caste Roles
  • Different castes were viewed as being different species
  • Castes were separated from each other (location, housing, clothing, occupation, etc.)
caste roles1
Caste Roles
  • If you were obedient to the restrictions of your caste, you would be reincarnated into a higher caste
2 family
2) Family
  • One was aware of his or her caste from childhood
  • It was the FAMILY’S responsibility to teach children about caste, as well as their expected duties/behaviors
2 family1
2) Family
  • Family needs ALWAYS came before individual wishes
  • Patriarchal society
3 village
3) Village
  • Community served as the heart of Indian life
  • Community needs ALWAYS came before individual wishes
3 village1
3) Village
  • Different castes lived together in the SAME village