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Man & Environment: Biomedical Development. Contributed By: Calista (8) Su Jean (10) Caleb (15) Shang Wen (17). CONTENTS. Different Organ Transplants Living Post- Mortem Bone Marrow Transplant (Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant) Complications of Transplant Benefits to Man

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man environment biomedical development

Man & Environment:Biomedical Development

Contributed By: Calista (8)

Su Jean (10)

Caleb (15)

Shang Wen (17)

contents
CONTENTS
  • Different Organ Transplants
    • Living
    • Post- Mortem
  • Bone Marrow Transplant (Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant)
  • Complications of Transplant
  • Benefits to Man
  • Effectiveness of Technology
  • Negative Impacts on the Environment
living transplants
LIVING TRANSPLANTS

Bone marrow

  • Replace damaged bone marrows
  • Can be done by umbilical cord blood transplant
    • Stem cells are taken from baby and stored

Kidney*

  • Usually does not endanger the donor or receiver
  • Conducted in the case of kidney failure

Liver*

  • Conducted for patients with cancer or liver hardening

*Liver and kidney can also be transplanted post-mortem

post mortem transplants 1
POST-MORTEM TRANSPLANTS - 1

Heart

  • Conducted when patient has severe

coronary artery disease/heart failure

Corneas*

  • Conducted when patient's cornea(s) can

no longer be healed by medicine

Cardiovascular Homograft

  • Conducted when patient has faulty windpipe/ heart valves /blood vessels

*Corneas can be also transplanted live

Did You Know?

The youngest donor of corneas is ten year old Janis Babson!

post mortem transplants 2
Post-Mortem TRANSPLANTS - 2

Pancreas*

  • Conducted when patient has diabetes

(usually insulin-dependent)

INtestines

  • If patient develops life-threatening symptoms from feeding through special drip
  • Rarely done

*Pancreas can be transplanted live, though rarely

post mortem transplants 3
Post-Mortem Transplants - 3

Lungs

  • Done when patient has exhausted other therapies
  • Cure for diseased lungs
  • Improve /extend lives of patients with respiratory failure
  • Usually fail after 3 to 5 years

Skin (Grafting)

  • In the scenario of severe burns/infections causing excessive skin loss
  • Can be taken from animals/patient's skin
bone marrow transplant
BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT
  • The bone marrow is a tissue which contains many stem cells
  • The bone marrow being transplanted needs to be suitable for the patient
  • Stem cells are immature cells that can replace blood cells

Did You Know?

A half suitable bone marrow has successfully been transplanted and has cured leukaemia!

bone marrow transplant1
Bone Marrow Transplant

METHODS

  • Stem cells from donor's bone marrow replace damaged patient's bone marrow
  • Stem cells are taken after birth and stored till needed
  • Stem cells are transferred to the patient along with chemo/radiotherapy
bone marrow transplant2
BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT

NEEDED TO:

  • Replace damaged bone marrow

with part of a healthy functioning

bone marrow

  • Regenerate a new immune system

that will fight cancers/diseases

bone marrow transplant3
BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT

COMPLICATIONS ON RECIPIENTS

  • Rashes

v

  • Vomiting
  • Hair loss
  • Change in skin pigmentation
  • May be rendered infertile
  • Weak immune system - more prone to infections
  • Contraction of cataracts (clouding of lens of eye)
bone marrow transplant4
BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT

COMPLICATIONS ON RECIPIENT

Graft versus Host Disease (GVhD)

  • 2 types - Acute and Chronic
    • Acute: immediate side effect
    • Chronic: developed from acute GVhD
  • Caused by donor's cells fighting the host's cells
  • Different severity - From mild to life-threatening

Did You Know?

GVhD can help to destroy remaining cancer cells!

bone marrow transplant5
BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT

COMPLICATIONS ON DONOR

  • Fatigue
  • Lower back pain
  • Bleeding at collection spot
  • Stiffness when walking
  • Muscle aches
  • Drug risks
bone marrow transplant6
BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT

BENEFITS

  • Certain cancers, such as leukaemia can be cured
  • Provides a new immune system for patients to better fight diseases
  • Able to cure diseases that affect production of stem cells
  • Able to restore bone marrow damaged by chemotherapy
technology
Technology

ADVANTAGES TO MAN

  • Higher chance of curing diseases
  • Invention of vaccines
  • More flexibility for treatments for patients
  • Machines provide faster treatment
technology1
Technology

DISADVANTAGES TO MAN

  • Requires high funding
  • Can cause humans to be over-dependent on it and believe that it can cure any illness.
impacts on environment
IMPACTS ON ENVIRONMENT

NEGATIVE

  • Technology used requires electricity - burning fossil fuels
  • Life expectancy goes up - Over population

*Note: There are no positive impacts on environment

(which is saddening)

conclusion
Conclusion

Having bore the negative and positive points of technology, we have come to a conclusion. While technology is ubiquitous and necessary in our daily lives, it can lead to negative consequences if used inappropriately.

the end
THE END

Thank You for your kind attention.

We hope you have learnt something from today's presentation.